Phosphorus, denoted by the chemical symbol P and atomic number 15, is a non-metallic chemical element. It is an essential element for life and has a wide range of industrial applications.
Chemical Properties of Phosphorus:
- Phosphorus is highly reactive and readily forms compounds with many other elements, including oxygen, sulfur, and chlorine.
- It exists in several different allotropes, including white, red, and black phosphorus.
- White phosphorus is highly flammable and reacts explosively with air, while red and black phosphorus are less reactive.
Physical Properties of Phosphorus:
- Phosphorus is a white, yellow, or red solid at room temperature and pressure, depending on the allotrope.
- It has a melting point of 44.1°C and a boiling point of 280°C.
- Phosphorus is a relatively dense element, with a density of 1.82 g/cm³.
Valency of Phosphorus:
- Phosphorus has a valency of -3, +3, and +5.
- It readily accepts three or five valence electrons to form covalent compounds.
Electronic Configuration of Phosphorus:
- The electron configuration of phosphorus is [Ne] 3s2 3p3.
- It has five valence electrons that are easily donated or accepted to form covalent compounds.
Uses of Phosphorus:
- Phosphorus is used in the production of fertilizers, which provide essential nutrients for plant growth.
- It is used in the production of detergents and other cleaning products.
- Phosphorus is also used in the production of steel, as well as in the production of electronics and other high-tech products.
Reactions of Phosphorus with Other Elements:
- Phosphorus reacts readily with oxygen to form phosphorus oxide, which can further react with water to form phosphoric acid.
- It can also react with other elements, such as sulfur and chlorine, to form phosphorus sulfide and phosphorus trichloride, respectively.
Balanced equations for Reactions of Phosphorus with Other Elements
Phosphorus + Oxygen -> Phosphorus Pentoxide
4 P + 5 O2 -> 2 P2O5
Phosphorus + Chlorine -> Phosphorus Trichloride
2 P + 3 Cl2 -> 2 PCl3
Phosphorus + Bromine -> Phosphorus Tribromide
2 P + 3 Br2 -> 2 PBr3
Phosphorus + Iodine -> Phosphorus Triiodide
2 P + 3 I2 -> 2 PI3
Phosphorus + Hydrogen -> Phosphine
P4 + 6 H2 -> 4 PH3
Phosphorus + Sulfur -> Phosphorus Trisulfide
P4 + 3 S8 -> 4 P4S3
Industrial Uses of Phosphorus:
- Phosphorus is used in a wide range of industrial applications, including in the production of fertilizers, cleaning products, and steel.
- It is also used in the production of electronics and other high-tech products.
Medical Uses of Phosphorus:
- Phosphorus is an essential element for life and is found in DNA and RNA, as well as in many other biological molecules.
- It is used in some medications to treat conditions such as hypophosphatemia.
Chemical and Physical Properties of Phosphorus in a table
|Valency||-3, +3, and +5|
|Electron Configuration||[Ne] 3s2 3p3|
|Color||White, yellow, or red|
|Solubility||Soluble in water and some organic solvents|