Layers of atmosphere

The five distinct layers of the atmosphere that, in order, extend outward from the surface of the earth.

are as follows:

  1. The troposphere
  2. The stratosphere
  3. The mesosphere
  4. The thermosphere.
  5. The exosphere

The troposphere

The troposphere is where all weather changes occur. This is the region where helicopters, parachutes, and airplanes fly. The troposphere is the atmosphere’s lowest level. The troposphere extends up to roughly 15 km from the surface around the equator, but only about 8 km from the surface in the poles.

The troposphere is the lowest layer of the atmosphere and contains over 75% of the atmosphere’s total air. This is where the most of the water vapor and dust particles are.

Features of the troposphere

The stratosphere

The stratosphere is where you’ll find the ozone layer. This is a specialized layer that stops the sun’s ultra violet rays, often known as UV rays, from reaching the surface of the planet.

In the stratosphere, there are no storms or turbulences. As a result, jets fly through this layer.

This layer is 15 to 50 kilometers above sea level. Because there is very little water vapour in this layer, the air is dry.

Closer to the stratosphere, the Cumulo nimbus takes the shape of an anvil. This shape is caused by the wind blowing in only one direction. Rain, thunder, and lightning are possible after these types of clouds form.

The mesosphere

This layer freezes water vapour into ice clouds.

Among the five layers of the atmosphere, this is the coldest. When the sun sets, the rays fall on these clouds, which are visible at night. The mesosphere is located 50-80 kilometers above sea level.

The thermosphere

This layer’s air particles absorb the sun’s light. As a result, the temperature in this region is extremely high. The thermosphere is located between 80 and 120 kilometers above sea level.

Aurora borealis and Aurora australis are both spectacular scenes that occur in the thermosphere. Aurora borealis and Aurora australis may be observed at the northern and southern poles, respectively.

This layer contains the International Space Station.

The exosphere

The exosphere is the atmosphere’s thinnest layer. This stratum is 120 kilometers above sea level. There is no distinct boundary between the exosphere and space.

Functions of the atmosphere

  • The atmosphere provides the oxygen required for all plants and animals to survive.
  • Plants obtain carbon dioxide from the atmosphere for photosynthesis.
  • The atmosphere provides nitrogen, a critical essential for plant development.
  • The sun’s heat, light, and ultra violet radiation fall on Earth through the atmosphere. The ozone layer shields the world from this damaging radiation.
  • The atmosphere prevents the earth’s heat from being sent into space. As a result, the atmosphere keeps our planet warm. There is no atmosphere on the moon. As a result, the moon is very hot during the day and extremely freezing at night.
  • The hydrological cycle is a component that plays a significant role in the maintenance of life on Earth. The presence of water vapor in the atmosphere is absolutely necessary for the continued operation of the hydrological cycle.
  • Flying is made easier for birds and some insects by the presence of atmosphere.
  • It makes it easier for people to communicate with one another.
  • It prevents meteors from colliding with the earth. As they enter the earth’s atmosphere, meteorites that have crashed to the surface from outer space are rapidly heated and destroyed.

Differences of temperature and pressure in layers of the atmosphere

Layers of the atmosphere have distinct differences in both temperature and pressure. The temperature and the pressure both decrease when there is a rise in altitude.

Temperature variations in various levels of the atmosphere.

There is a sharp drop in temperature above the troposphere. In other words, this is how it develops. The sun’s rays warm both the land and the water. As a result, it’s rather hot close to the ground. The tropospheric temperature drops away from the land at a constant rate.

The higher you go, the hotter it becomes in the stratosphere. The ozone layer, which soaks up the sun’s ultraviolet radiation, is the explanation for this. After then, the temperature in the stratosphere rises.

Component of the troposphere.

Air pollution

“Adding substances to the atmosphere, altering its composition, and creating detrimental consequences on organisms” is what air pollution is.

There are two types of pollutants that produce air pollution. They are as follows:

  1. Gaseous pollutants
  2. Particulate pollution

Carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and other gaseous contaminants are examples for gaseous pollutants.

Carbon particles, lead particles, cement dust, pesticide droplets, unburned fuel droplets, and asbestos particles are examples of particulate pollution.

Ways of air pollution

  • Burning of gasoline in vehicles.
  • Combustion of fuel in commercial establishments
  • Gases and chemicals discharged into the atmosphere by thermal power facilities.
  • Burning of waste materials and other items.
  • Eruptions of volcanoes.
  • Clearing wooded land

Adverse effects of air pollution

Negative consequences brought on by polluted air

  • A wide range of health issues connected to the respiratory system
  • Acid rain
  • A rise in atmospheric temperature
  • A reduction in the purity and transparency of the air
  • Changes in the climate of the earth

Acid rain

Here are a few measures you may do to help reduce pollution in the air.

Certain actions that may be done to limit the air pollution.

  • Tune the engines of the vehicles.
  • Reduce the use of fossil fuels.
  • Use environmentally sustainable energy sources.
  • Pass the factory fumes through a filter
  • Avoid burning trash by recycling it.
  • Preserve and reforest forest land.

Why does the moon have no atmosphere?

Why is there no atmosphere on the moon?

There are two things that contribute to this.

They are determined by the moon’s escape velocity and the root mean square (RMS) velocity of its gas molecules.

The surface of the moon has a weak gravitational field. As a result, the moon’s escape velocity is lower than that of Earth. To calculate escape velocity, use the equation of.

V_ese = √2GM/r

V_ese = escape velocity

G = universal gravitational constant

M = mass of the body to be escaped from

r = distance from the center of the mass

The surface of the moon has a temperature of -155 0C- 100OC . As the temperature rises, molecules move at a rate greater than their escape velocity. As a result, the RMS velocity of all gas molecules increases as temperature rises.

The changes in temperature on the moon increased the root mean square (RMS) velocity of gas molecules.

As a result, gas molecules on the moon’s surface escape.

The root mean square (RMS) velocity of the gas molecules on the moon is significantly greater than the moon’s escape velocity.

Gas molecules from the moon’s surface escape as a result.

Is There an Atmosphere on the Moon?

The Moon does not have an atmosphere because it does not have the necessary conditions to sustain an atmosphere. An atmosphere is a layer of gases that surrounds a planet or other celestial body. It is created by the gravitational attraction of the body, which causes the gases to be retained around it. The Moon does not have a strong enough gravitational field to retain an atmosphere, so any gases that were present on the Moon’s surface have long since escaped into space.

There are several reasons why the Moon does not have a strong enough gravitational field to retain an atmosphere.

One reason is that it is relatively small compared to Earth, with a diameter of only about one-quarter that of Earth. This means that it has less mass and therefore a weaker gravitational field. In addition, the Moon has a very thin crust and a low density, which further contributes to its weak gravitational field.

The lack of an atmosphere on the Moon has a number of consequences. One of the most significant is that the Moon has no weather, as there are no atmospheric processes to create clouds, rain, or other weather phenomena.

The Moon’s surface is also exposed to the full force of the Sun’s radiation, which can cause temperatures to fluctuate dramatically from day to night. Finally, the lack of an atmosphere on the Moon means that there is no air to breathe, so humans and other animals cannot survive on the Moon without specialized equipment.

Is there an atmosphere on titan?

Yes, Titan is a moon of Saturn that has a thick atmosphere. Titan is the largest moon of Saturn and the second-largest moon in the Solar System, after Ganymede of Jupiter. It is the only moon in the Solar System known to have a significant atmosphere, which is composed mostly of nitrogen with small amounts of methane and other hydrocarbons.

Titan’s atmosphere is about 50% denser than Earth’s atmosphere at sea level, and it has a surface pressure that is about 1.5 times greater than Earth’s. The atmosphere is also very cold, with an average surface temperature of about -179 degrees Celsius (-290 degrees Fahrenheit). Despite the cold temperatures, there is evidence that there may be liquid methane and ethane on the surface of Titan, which could potentially support life.

The presence of an atmosphere on Titan is thought to be the result of the moon’s interior heating up and releasing gases that have been trapped inside. The atmosphere may also be replenished by the continuous rain of methane and other hydrocarbons from the upper atmosphere, which replenish the surface reservoirs of these substances. The thick atmosphere on Titan makes it difficult to study the moon’s surface using telescopes, so scientists have sent spacecraft, such as the Cassini-Huygens mission, to study the moon in detail.

Is the atmosphere on Titan breathable?

No, the atmosphere on Titan is not breathable for humans or other animals. Titan’s atmosphere is composed mostly of nitrogen, with small amounts of methane and other hydrocarbons. While nitrogen is an important component of the Earth’s atmosphere and is essential for life on our planet, it is not breathable on its own. Humans and other animals require oxygen to breathe, which is not present in sufficient quantities in Titan’s atmosphere.

In addition to the lack of oxygen, the atmosphere on Titan is also extremely cold, with an average surface temperature of about -179 degrees Celsius (-290 degrees Fahrenheit). This extreme cold would make it impossible for humans or other animals to survive on the surface of Titan without specialized equipment to protect them from the cold.

The lack of an oxygen-rich atmosphere and the extreme cold make it unlikely that there is any form of life on Titan as we know it. However, it is possible that there could be some form of life that is able to survive in the unique conditions on Titan, such as microorganisms that are able to utilize methane as a source of energy. Further study is needed to determine if there is any life on Titan.

How does Titan maintain its atmosphere?

You’re right that Titan’s rich atmosphere is unexpected, considering the moon’s size. The liquid iron in Earth’s outer core generates a magnetic field, which in turn keeps the planet’s atmosphere stable. Because of how the magnetic field alters the pathways of particles in the solar wind, the solar wind’s ephemeral gases are protected from being blown away. Like Earth, Mars once had an atmosphere, but because of its greater distance from the Sun, its magma froze and lost its magnetic qualities.

Saturn has a magnetic field, while Titan does not. The magnetosphere of Saturn is caused by internal motions of the planet’s super-compressed hydrogen gas (metallic fluid). Titan and the other satellites are completely surrounded by the field.

Saturn lacks the magma that sustains life on Earth. The Earth is a rocky planet. Light gases (such as hydrogen) could not condense due to the high temperature and the solar wind when it formed so near to the sun. This means that Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars are all mostly made of rocky and metallic elements. Magnetic Earth is made of liquid iron in its outer core.

In contrast, gas giants have a thin layer of light gases over a small, solid metal/rocky core (and hence, no magnetic field) (hydrogen and helium). Although gases are often not magnetic, they can conduct electricity like metals if subjected to sufficient pressure. They are able to produce a magnetic field due to this very characteristic.

Write ten facts about the Earth’s atmosphere

      • The gaseous layer that encircles Earth and is held in place by the planet’s gravity is called the atmosphere.
      • About 78% of Earth’s atmosphere is made up of nitrogen, 21% of oxygen, and the rest is made up of gases like carbon dioxide, water vapor, and argon in extremely small quantities.
      • Separate layers of the Earth’s atmosphere—the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere—have different properties and functions.
      • The troposphere begins at the Earth’s surface and rises to an altitude of between 8 and 15 kilometers (5-9 miles). It is here that the majority of the planet’s weather develops.
      • The stratosphere is the atmospheric layer above the troposphere, between 15 and 50 kilometers in altitude (9-31 miles). The ozone layer, which shields Earth from the sun’s ultraviolet rays, can be found there.
      • Between roughly 50 and 85 kilometers in height is where the mesosphere begins, which is the next atmospheric layer above the stratosphere (31-53 miles). As they enter the atmosphere above Earth, meteors quickly disintegrate here.
      • The thermosphere is the atmospheric layer that lies above the mesosphere, at an altitude of around 85–600 kilometers (53-373 miles). There, solar particles collide with Earth’s magnetic field, producing the Northern and Southern Lights.
      • The atmosphere of Earth serves to moderate the planet’s temperature and shield it from the destructive effects of the sun’s rays.
      • Water vapor in the Earth’s atmosphere is an important part of the hydrologic cycle and in keeping the planet at a comfortable temperature.
      • Earth’s atmosphere is dynamic, influenced by both natural phenomena like volcanic eruptions and meteor strikes and human actions like the burning of fossil fuels and the destruction of forests.
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Anuradhika Lakmali

Anuradhika Lakmali is a co-founder of Science A Plus learning network. She is working as a government teacher and has interest in chemistry, biology, phisics and self development.