What is ATP made of

ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) is composed of an adenosine molecule and three phosphate groups. ATP chemical formula is C10H16N5O13P3.

ATP chemical structure.png
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how many phosphates does ATP have?

ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) has three phosphates.

What word describes ATP production resulting from the capture of light energy by chlorophyll?


What reaction breaks the bonds that connect the phosphate groups in an ATP molecule?


What molecule is metabolized in cells to make energy “currency” in the form of ATP?

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the “energy currency” of the cell and is produced from the metabolism of various molecules, including glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids. However, glucose is the most common molecule digested to generate ATP.

230 Structure of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)-01.jpg
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How many ATP are produced in glycolysis?

In glycolysis, a total of 2 molecules of ATP are produced.

Why is ATP required for glycolysis?

ATP is required for glycolysis to provide energy for the activation of glucose molecules. In the first step of glycolysis, a molecule of ATP is used to phosphorylate glucose, which activates the molecule and makes it more reactive. This activated form of glucose can then be easily broken down into two smaller molecules, which continue through the glycolytic pathway.

The energy derived from the breakdown of glucose is utilized to regenerate ATP from ADP, ensuring a steady supply of energy for the cell. Thus, ATP is required for glycolysis to provide the energy necessary to activate glucose and to renew ATP when energy is created during glucose breakdown.

How is energy released from ATP?

Energy is released from ATP by hydrolysis, which is the process of breaking the bonds between the phosphate groups in an ATP molecule. This results in formation of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) as well as inorganic phosphate (Pi). The energy released is used by the cell for various metabolic processes.

what chemical reaction is used to convert ADP into ATP?

The chemical reaction used to rebuild ADP into ATP is called phosphorylation. This process involves the transfer of a phosphate group from a high-energy molecule, such as phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), to ADP, forming ATP. The phosphorylation reaction is an exothermic reaction, meaning it releases energy.

Where is energy stored in ATP?

Energy is stored in the bonds between the phosphate groups in an ATP molecule. Specifically, energy is stored in the bonds between the second and third phosphate groups in the ATP molecule, which are high-energy bonds.

When these bonds are hydrolyzed, the stored energy inside them is released and can be utilised by the cell for numerous metabolic processes.

What is ATP synthase?

ATP synthase is an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate (Pi) using the energy from an electrochemical gradient across a membrane. This enzyme is present in the inner membrane of mitochondria in eukaryotic cells and in the plasma membrane of bacteria. ATP synthase works by transporting hydrogen ions (protons) through the membrane, which drives the formation of ATP from ADP and Pi.

This process is also known as oxidative phosphorylation in eukaryotic cells and as proton motive force-driven phosphorylation in bacteria.

what stage of the cellular respiration produces more ATP?

The stage of cellular respiration that produces the most ATP is oxidative phosphorylation, also known as the electron transport chain. This is the final stage of cellular respiration and occurs in the mitochondria.

During oxidative phosphorylation, the energy from previous phases is used to make ATP by transferring electrons through a sequence of protein complexes and pumping hydrogen ions through the inner mitochondrial membrane. This creates a proton gradient that stimulates the flow of protons back into mitochondria via ATP synthase, resulting in the production of ATP.

where in a cell is ATP made?

ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) is primarily made in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells and in the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells.

In eukaryotic cells, the majority of ATP is produced in the mitochondria through the processes of cellular respiration, including glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation.

In prokaryotic cells, ATP is produced in the cytoplasm through a process called substrate-level phosphorylation, which occurs during glycolysis. In addition, some bacteria can produce ATP through oxidative phosphorylation.

what happens to the phosphate group that is removed from ATP when it is converted to ADP?

When ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) is converted to ADP (Adenosine diphosphate), one of its phosphate groups is removed. The fate of this phosphate group depends on the reaction taking place.

In cellular metabolism, ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP by the transfer of a phosphate group to a substrate molecule, a process known as phosphorylation. This transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to another molecule is an exothermic reaction and releases energy that can be used for cellular work.

During the conversion of ATP to ADP, the phosphate group is either taken up by another molecule to produce a different type of phosphorylated molecule, or it is changed to inorganic phosphate (Pi) and discharged into the surrounding solution. Through the process of cellular respiration, the inorganic phosphate can be reutilized for the production of ATP.

how many ATP are produced in aerobic respiration vs anaerobic respiration?

The production of ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) during aerobic and anaerobic respiration is summarized in the table below:


Aerobic Respiration

Anaerobic Respiration




Number of ATP produced per glucose molecule

Up to 38 ATP


Source of electrons for oxidative phosphorylation



Oxygen requirement


Not required

As the table shows, aerobic respiration produces significantly more ATP than anaerobic respiration, but requires oxygen to function. On the other hand, anaerobic respiration produces only a small amount of ATP but does not require oxygen.

Aerobic respiration occurs in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells and is accompanied by a number of metabolic processes, including glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. Through the creation of a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane, this leads in the full oxidation of glucose and the production of huge amounts of ATP.

In contrast, anaerobic respiration takes place in the cytoplasm of cells and is solely comprised of glycolysis. This method is less effective than aerobic respiration because it produces only two ATP molecules per glucose molecule. As a consequence of anaerobic respiration, the accumulation of lactic acid can cause fatigue and muscle cramping.

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