Table of Contents

Functions of the parts in human eye

Functions of Sclerotic layer

  • Tough, white outermost layer of the eye that does not allow light to pass through.

Functions of Cornea

  • The cornea is formed when the sclerotic layer in front of the iris thins and becomes transparent.

Functions of Choroid

  • The choroid is located inside the sclerotic layer and supplies blood to the eye.

Functions of Pupil

  • The pupil is a hole in the middle of the iris that allows light to enter and pass through the lens.

Functions of Ciliary muscle

  • Supports to hold the lens\s.
  • Helps to change the curvature of the lens, when necessary.

Functions of Vitreous humour

  • A transparent jelly-like substance that fills the rear cavity of the skin lens and helps to maintain the eye’s spherical shape.

Functions of fovea/yellow spot

  • The sensitive part of the retina where sharp images form, known as the fovea/yellow spot.

Functions of Blind spot

  • Blind spot is a region of the retina that lacks light-sensitive cells.
  • Despite the fact that light is focused, no vision is possible.

Functions of Optic nerve

  • The nerve that runs between the brain and the eye.
  • It transmits visual stimuli from the retina to the brain for image interpretation.

Part of the human ear

Functions of Pinna/ear lobe

  • An organ made of cartilage.
  • Sound waves are directed towards the auditory canal.

Functions of Tympanic membrane

  • Vibrates in response to the sound wave, gaining auditory senses.

Functions of Ossicles

  • Three bones are called the malleus, incus, and stapes. 2 Send vibrations related to sound to the cochlea.

Functions of Eustachian tube

  • An open tube that connects to the pharynx.
  • It regulates the pressure on both sides of the tympanic membrane.

Functions of Cochlea

  • The auditory nerve’s nerve endings are linked to the cochlea.
  • Send auditory sensations to the auditory nerve.

Functions of Auditory nerve

  • Take your auditory senses to the appropriate part of your brain.
  • The relevant part of the brain interprets that sound.

Functions of Semi-circular canals

  • Contribute to maintaining body balance.

Functions of External auditory canal

  • The tympanic membrane receives sound.

Functions of blood cells and components

Functions of Erythrocytes / red blood cells.

  • Red blood cells contain hemoglobin, a red pigment. Haemoglobin transports oxygen from the lungs to the body’s cells and gives blood its red color.

Functions of WBC or white blood cells / leukocytes

  • White blood cells fight pathogens and produce antibodies to protect the body.
  • Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes are the different types of white blood cells.

Functions of Platelets

  • Platelets are proteins that aid in the clotting of blood at a bleeding site.
  • Some viruses cause a rapid decrease in platelet percentage. e.g. Dengue fever, Leptospirosis

Functions of blood Plasma

  • Plasma’s primary function is to transport substances dissolved in it.
  • Following are some examples:
  • It delivers digestive products, minerals, and vitamins to cells.
  • It transports excretory products generated by biochemical reactions within cells to excretory organs.
  • Plasma transports hormones, proteins, enzymes, and gases throughout the body.

Functions of bio macromolecules

Functions of Carbohydrates

  • As a source of energy.
  • Carbohydrate is the primary source of energy for or ganisms’ activities.
  • The energy is released by the monosaccharides (glucose) produced by the hydrolysis of those compounds.
  • As a compound for storing things.
  • Plant cell wall structural component.
  • As an ingredient in nucleic acid.

Functions of enzymes

  • Reduce the activation energy required to accelerate chemical reactions.
  • Improve metabolism and digestion.
  • Assist in the replication of DNA.
  • Act as regulatory molecules, controlling the rate of reactions in response to changes in the environment of the cell.
  • Maintaining the chemical balance within cells is critical.
  • Allow organisms to perform the complex chemical reactions required for life.
  • Contribute to the formation of macromolecules like proteins and nucleic acids.
  • participate in cellular respiration
  • Assist in the removal of harmful compounds
  • Help with energy generation and transfer within cells.

Functions of Lipids

As a source of energy.

  • Lipids, like carbohydrates and proteins, serve as an energy source. When lipids are burned, more energy is produced.
  • To create various structural components.
  • One of the most important compounds in cell membranes is lipid. (In particular, phospholipids and cholesterol)

For the purpose of water conservation.

  • Cutin, a wax found on the surface of the plant body, conserves water. Most animals’ body coverings contain wax, which prevents desiccation because it is impermeable to water.

To keep the body temperature stable.

  • Warm-blooded animals like birds and mammals have a hypodermal fat layer that serves as a thermal insulator. It aids in the maintenance of their body temperature.

To safeguard internal organs.

  • The fat layer in the body surrounds the organs and structures and absorbs external shocks. As a result, protection is provided.

To create some hormones.

  • Some vertebrate hormones (Oestrogen, Testosterone, Cortisol) are lipid compounds.

Functions of Proteins

As a source of energy.

  • When the supply of energy from lipids and carbohydrates is insufficient, protein is used to generate energy.

To create structural elements.

  • Proteins play an important role in the formation of cell membranes. Keratin protein can also be found in hair and feathers.

In the form of enzymes.

  • Enzymes catalyze all biochemical reactions that occur in organisms. Proteins are the enzymes.

In the form of hormones.

  • Some hormones are proteins that play a role in organism homeostasis and coordination.

As antibodies.

  • Proteins are antibodies that are produced in the body to protect the body from microorganisms that enter the body.

Functions of Nucleic acid

  • Important in the storage of organisms’ genetic information.
  • Transferring genetic information from generation to generation is critical.
  • Protein synthesis is an important process.
  • Controlling all cellular activities in a cell is critical.
  • DNA contains the instructions for controlling cellular activities.
  • Some viruses store their genetic material in RNA.
  • Variations in DNA caused by mutations are important in evolution.

Functions of minerals in human body

Functions of Potassium

  • Controls the ionic balance of the cell’s fluid.
  • For the heart and muscle activity.
  • Nerve impulse transmission.

Functions of Sodium

  • Enzymes are activated by sodium.
  • Digestive juice constituent.
  • To keep cells’ osmotic pressure constant.
  • Nerve impulse transmission.

Functions of Magnesium

  • A component of bones and teeth.
  • To regulate nerve activity in the skeletal muscles.
  • Assist with metabolic activities.

Functions of Calcium

  • Bone and tooth development.
  • Clotting of the blood.
  • Nerve function is normal.
  • Production of milk.
  • Vitamin B absorption.

Functions of Phosphorous

  • Bone and tooth development.
  • As a nucleic acid constituent.
  • To help with carbohydrate and fat metabolism.
  • Energy is released instantly in the muscles and nerves.

Functions of Iron

  • Iron is utilized in the making of hemoglobin.
  • Oxygen storage in muscles.
  • As a component of enzymes.

Functions of Iodine

  • Thyroxin hormone synthesis with iodine.

Functions of minerals in plants


  • As an amino acid, protein, nucleic acid, and chlorophyll constituent.


  • As an ingredient in nucleic acid and ATP (Adenosine Tri Phosphate).


  • Protein synthesis with potassium.
  • Stomata opening and closing.

Functions of Iron

  • Chlorophyll synthesis with iron.
  • The production of respiratory enzymes.

Functions of Calcium

  • Calcium is a component of the cell wall.
  • To keep the structure and functions of the plasma membrane for enzyme activity.

Functions of Zinc

  • Zinc is required for the activity of the majority of enzymes. The production of chlorophyll.

Functions of Sulphur

  • Proteins and amino acids both include sulfur.

Functions of vitamins

Functions of Vitamin A

  • Visual pigment formation is essential for eye vision.
  • To maintain healthy, fair skin.

Functions of Vitamin B

  • Nerve maintenance.
  • To keep your skin healthy.
  • Bone marrow formation.
  • Red Blood Cell Maturation.
  • Antibody creation.

Functions of Vitamin C

  • To maintain skin health.
  • To create enamel.
  • To create collagen fibers

Functions of Vitamin D

  • Controls calcium and phosphorus absorption.

Functions of Vitamin E

  • Continue cell division.

Functions of Vitamin K

  • To create components required for blood clotting.

Functions of Organelles in cells

Functions of the Ribosomes

  • The ribosome’s function is to provide a location for protein synthesis.

Functions of the Golgi complex

  • The golgi complex’s functions include secretory substance production, packaging, and secretion.

Functions of the Mitochondria

  • To release energy, aerobic respiratory reactions occur within the mitochondrion. As a result, it is known as the cell’s powerhouse.
  • The energy produced within the mitochondrion is used for the cell’s metabolic activities.

Functions of the Chromosomes

  • Chromosomes store genetic material and transfer inherited characteristics from generation to generation.

Functions of the Cytoplasm

  • The cytoplasm’s functions include maintaining the cell’s shape, housing cell organelles, and carrying out various metabolic processes.

Functions of the Cell membrane

  • Its primary function is to enclose the cell, allow water, ions, and some molecules to enter, and thus control the entry and exit of materials into and out of the cell.

Functions of the Cell wall

  • The main functions of the cell wall are to keep the cell shape, to support and to protect the cell.

Functions of the Rough Endoplasmic reticulum

  • Ribosomes attached to the membrane cause the endoplasmic reticulum to become rough. Its primary function is to transport proteins within the cell.

Functions of the Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum

  • The membrane is a tubular sac network without ribosomes. Its tasks include synthesizing lipids and steroids and transporting them inside of the cell.

Functions of the Vacuoles

  • The vacuole’s functions include maintaining water balance, providing support, and providing color to the cell via pigments within it.

Functions of Mitosis

  • For the development of multicellular organisms.
  • As a method of asexual reproduction.
  • Healing of wounds and cell replacement.

Functions of Meiosis

  • The preservation of a constant number of chromosomes from generation to generation.
  • Because of chromosomal variations, they aid in evolution.

Functions of parenchyma

  • In plant leaves, palisade and spongy mesophylls contain chlorophyll within chloroplasts. Photosynthesis occurs within these chloroplasts.
  • Food is stored in parenchymal tissues, which are known as storage tissues.
  • Water is stored in the Parenchyma tissue of xerophytic plants.
  • Herbaceous plants, such as Balsam, absorb water into the vacuoles of parenchymal cells. Cells become turgid as a result and provide mechanical support to the plant.

Functions of collenchyma

  • Before the formation of wood, collenchyma provides mechanical support to dicot plant stems. (Provides mechanical support to herbs) The collenchyma in veins of this tissue provides mechanical support to the plant leaves.
  • Collenchyma of immature dicot stems contains chloroplasts. These cells are responsible for photosynthesis.

Functions of sclerenchyma

  • Give the plant’s body the support it needs.

Functions of xylem

  • Water and minerals are transported to the plant body and absorbed by the plant roots.
  • Mechanical support for the plant body.

Functions of phloem tissue

  • This tissue transports the food synthesized in the leaves throughout the plant body (Translocation).

Functions of epithelial tissue

  • Lining and protection of free surfaces – Protects internal organs from pressure, friction, and microbes.
  • Absorptive function – The digestive tract epithelium absorbs digestive end products.
  • Stimuli perception – Taste and smell senses are detected by the epithelium of the tongue and nose.
  • Secretory function is the secretion of mucous by the respiratory tract’s lining epithelium.
  • Filtering function – Bowman’s capsule epithelium in nephrons filters blood.

Functions of neurons

  • The neuron’s function is to receive information from the receptors (eye, ear, nose, tongue, skin) or another neuron and transmit it to the effector (muscles) or another neuron.

Functions of ATP

  • During the breakdown of ATP, the energy required for biological processes is released.
  • Energy storage. Energy is released.
  • Serve as an energy transporter.

Function of blood

  • Materials transportation (digested end products, respiratory gases, excretory byproducts, hormones, mineral ions and proteins).
  • Phagocytosis and antibody production defend the body against pathogenic microbes.
  • Chemical coordination and homeostasis maintenance among tissues and organs

Functions of cerebrospinal fluid

  • Bouncy support for the brain and spinal cord.
  • Shock and jerk absorption.
  • Microbial infection and desiccation resistance.
  • Keep temperature fluctuations at bay.

Functions of cerebrum

  • Perception of receptor impulses, identification of received sensory information, and storage of that information.
  • Sensory perception of vision, taste, smell, hearing, pain, and temperature.
  • Engage in high-level mental activities such as learning, intelligence, and thought.
  • Controlling the voluntary contraction of muscles.

Functions of cerebellum

  • Body balance must be maintained.
  • Management of voluntary muscle activity.
  • Participate in the maintenance of body movement.

Functions of plant roots

  • Attach the plant to the soil.
  • Water and minerals dissolved in water absorb (absorption).
  • Using vegetative propagation, you can create new plants.

Functions of the Roots with root nodules

  • Root nodules are homes for communities of bacteria that enrich the surrounding soil with nutrients. This will result in the soil becoming fertile.

Functions of the Prop roots

  • Give the branches some support.

Functions of the climbing roots

  • It does this by attaching itself to another stem, which helps it climb the stem.

Functions of the Stilt roots

  • Give the stem some support.

Functions of the Aerial roots

  • Take in moisture from the surrounding air in the form of vapor.
  • Some aerial roots are capable of carrying out the photosynthesis process.

Functions of the Respiratory roots

  • Exchange of air with the atmosphere.

Functions of Leaves

  • Photosynthesis is the primary function of a plant leaf. Plants produce food in their leaves through photosynthesis.
  • Some leaves have developed the ability to store water.
  • Some leaves regenerate new plants (vegetative reproduction).

Functions of stems

  • It bears flowers, leaves, buds, fruits, and seeds.
  • Supports the plant by remaining rigid.
  • Water and food are transported through the plant’s body.
  • Many plants produce new plants via stems. (vegetative propagation) Photosynthesis is carried out by some plants with green stems.
  • Some aerial stems store food.

functions of the human digestive system

  • The transformation of complex foods into simple substances.
  • Simple food absorption by the body.

Functions of the Parts in human digestive system

Functions of the Mouth cavity

  • Food breakdown.
  • teeth cut particles into small pieces (mechanical digestion).
  • Salivary glands secrete saliva to aid digestion of food.
  • The chemical process of digestion starts with saliva.
  • By using the tongue, combine food and saliva (Chemical digestion).

Functions of Pharynx

  • It is the digestive tract and larynx’s common cavity.
  • Push food from the mouth cavity into the oesophagus.

Functions of the Oesophagus

  • Move the food from the mouth cavity to the stomach.

Functions of the Stomach

  • It’s a muscle sac.
  • Because digestive juices are acidic, digestion is efficient.
  • For about three hours, food is stored in the stomach.
  • Food is digested further in the stomach by the mixing of digestive juices.

Functions of the Small intestine

  • It’s a folded tube about 6 meters long.
  • Digestion juices help different types of food digest.
  • Digestion is complete, and digestive food is absorbed by the body.
  • The small intestine has finger-like projections called villi that increase the surface area for efficient digestion.

Functions of the Large intestine

  • It is shorter than the small intestine but much wider.
  • Water absorption.

Functions of the Anus

  • It is the end of the digestive system.
  • Semisolid feces is expelled via anus.

Functions of the atmosphere

  • The atmosphere provides the oxygen required for all animals and plants to breathe.
  • Photosynthesis requires carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, which plants obtain from the atmosphere.
  • The atmosphere provides nitrogen to the soil, which is a critical element for plant growth.

Functions of soil minerals

  • Soil minerals provide minerals to plants that are obtained from the soil.
  • The clay particles in soil hold water and minerals.

Functions of soil water

  • Assists soil organisms in maintaining their function.
  • Supports plants to absorb nutrients from the soil.
  • Controls the soil’s temperature.
  • As a raw material for plant photosynthesis.

Functions of soil air

  • Air is required for soil organisms and plant roots to breathe.
  • Seed germination requires certain conditions.
  • Increases soil porosity.

Functions of soil organic materials (Humus)

  • Organic soil materials (Humus) serve as a repository for nutrients required for plant growth.
  • Increase the capacity of the soil and air to be retained.
  • During dry seasons, it prevents soil cracking.
  • Increase soil water retention.

Functions of soil organisms

  • When earthworms dig holes, they loosen the soil and allow it to breathe.
  • Bacteria and other microorganisms decompose plants and dead bodies, allowing minerals to enter the soil.

Functions of Oblongata Medulla

  • Controls autonomic (non-voluntary) functions such as heart rate and breathing.

Functions of the spinal cord

  • From the brain, the spinal cord transmits signals to various bodily parts.

Functions of Peripheral nervous system

  • Impulses are sent from receptors to the central nervous system.
  • The central nervous system sends impulses to the effectors.

Functions of the human skin

  • The body’s protective layer.
  • The epidermis layers prevent dehydration by minimizing water loss from the body.
  • Melanin pigments in skin cells protect the body from ultra violet rays.
  • Sebaceous gland secretions act as a barrier against microorganism infections. This is an instinctive defense mechanism.
  • Body temperature control. Sweat glands secrete sweat to release heat when the temperature in the environment rises higher than the body temperature.
  • When the ambient temperature is lower than the body temperature, blood supply to the skin’s surface is reduced and the body temperature is regulated. Sweating secretion is reduced.
  • Performing the function of a sensory organ. There are nerve endings in the dermis that detect pressure, touch, and temperature.
  • Vitamin D synthesis. Vitamin D is synthesized in skin cells using the energy of sunlight.
  • Excretion. Sweat is made up of urea, uric acid, and ammonium salts, which are secreted by the sweat glands. As a result, the skin can be thought of as an excretory organ.

The functions of transpiration

  • Because of transpiration, the speed of transportation within the plants increases.
  • The transpiration pull is in charge of the continuous ascent of water and nutrients from the roots to the plant’s crown.
  • As water evaporates, transpiration assists the plant in cooling.
  • Evaporation keeps the water cycle going.
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