Table of Contents

Biological Definition


  • Organisms in a food chain or food web after the producers.
  • they feed on other animals or plants directly or indirectly.
  • they can’t produce their own food.


  • Any form of green plant is a producer.
  • they produce their own food by photosynthesis.
  • Food chain in an ecosystem is started with the producer.
  • By absorbing sunlight and using the energy to create carbohydrates.


  • The term “predator” refers to an organism that consumes another organism, known as “prey,” in its entirety or in part.


  • Proteins are constructed from a variety of amino acids that are connected to one another.

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

  • Adenosine triphosphate, also known as ATP.
  • ATP is a molecule that transports energy that can be found in the cells of all living things.

Trophic level

  • A trophic level is a hierarchical level or position in a food chain, food web, or ecological pyramid.


  • Green plants and certain other organisms use sunlight to generate nutrition from carbon dioxide and water.
  • Photosynthesis in plants uses the green pigment chlorophyll and produces oxygen as a byproduct.


  • Carbohydrates are a major nutritional food group in the human body.
  • Carbohydrates contain hydrogen and oxygen in the ratio of 2:1.
  • Carbohydrates are found in biological tissues as structural materials and for energy storage.
  • Carbohydrates are broken down in the human body to provide energy.

Biotic factor

  • The living components or factors that affect an environment or the organisms that live in it
  • The living parts of an ecosystem, as well as the conditions that can have an effect on other organisms


  • A taxonomic level used in organism classification.
  • Order is normally lower than the class and is made up of families.
  • In Linnaean taxonomy, order (Latin: ordo) is one of the eight major hierarchical taxonomic levels.


  • Competition is a relationship between organisms or species in which both parties require a resource that is available in limited amount
  • organisms that strive for the same resources such as food, water, or territory, in the same place. It is called competition.


  • Relating to or about the ocean .


  • An individual is a single organism that belongs to a specific species and lives in the environment.


  • A population is a group of organisms belonging to the same species that live in a specific geographical location during a specific time period.


  • A community is defined as a group of different populations that interact with one another in a specific area.


  • The biosphere is a word that refers to all of Earth’s ecosystems.
  • The biosphere includes all habitable regions on Earth.
  • It is includes both non-living elements.
  • The biosphere is the sum of Earth’s ecosystems.

The biosphere is the portion of the earth and its atmosphere that is inhabited by living things. The biosphere consists of three main parts.

“Lithosphere” refers to the earth’s crust and upper mantle. The hydrosphere is the region that contains all of the oceans and bodies of fresh water. Water covers 70% of the earth’s surface. The atmosphere is the region of the earth’s atmosphere that contains air.


  • An ecosystem is defined as all of the communities and nonliving components that interact in a specific area.


  • Speciation is an evolutionary process that results in the development of new, unique species that are reproductively isolated from one another.

The cell membrane

  • The plasma membrane – in other words – the cell membrane.
  • The plasma membrane is a component of every cell that acts as a barrier between the inside of the cell and the environment outside the cell.
  • The cell membrane is made up of a lipid bilayer that is semipermeable to molecules passing through it.
  • Every living cell has a biological membrane called the cell membrane.
  • The cell membrane is the membrane that controls the flow of materials into and out of the cell. It can protect the cell from the outer environment.

Cell biology

  • The study of cells is also referred to as cell biology and also called cellular biology and cytology.
  • The study of the structure, function, and behavior of cells is referred to as cell biology, which is a subfield of biology.

RNA (Ribonucleic acid)

  • The protein-making machinery of a cell is called a ribosome.
  • Ribosomes are complicated molecular machines that are located inside of living cells and are responsible for the production of proteins from amino acids.
  • Each cell contains many ribosomes, each of which is made up of two subunits.
  • To generate polypeptides and proteins, RNA binds messenger RNA and transfer RNA.
  • Ribosomes are the sites where genetic information is translated into protein molecules.


  • As in the formation of gametes and plant spores, this type of cell division produces four daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell.
  • Meiosis is a specific type of cell division that halves the number of chromosomes in the cell while creating four gamete units. The development of gametes (eggs and sperm) relies on this process.
  • Meiosis is the process by which a single cell divides twice to produce four cells with half the original genetic information.


  • During endocytosis, a cell invaginates its membrane to enclose an object, called a vacuole.
  • Endocytosis is the process by which a live cell takes in substances by invaginating its membrane to form a vacuole.
  • Endocytosis is a broad term that refers to the process by which cells absorb foreign material by engulfing it in their cell membrane. Endocytosis can take many forms, including pinocytosis and phagocytosis.


  • The process of releasing the contents of a cell vacuole to the outside by fusing the vacuole membrane with the cell membrane. The transfer and fusion of secretory vesicles with the plasma membrane and extracellular space is referred to as exocytosis.
  • The release of cellular substances (such as secretory products) stored in cell vesicles by fusion of the vesicular membrane with the plasma membrane and eventual release of the contents to the cell’s exterior is defined as exocytosis.


  • An infective microscopic agent that is too small to be visible under electron microscope, comprises of a nucleic acid molecule in a protein sheath, and can replicate only within the live cells of a host.
  • A extremely basic microbe that infects cells and can cause diseases in medicine. Because viruses may only reproduce within infected cells, they are not considered alive.
  • Virus, a small, simple infectious agent that can multiply only in live cells of animals, plants, or microorganisms.


  • The care and protection of these resources in order to ensure their existence for future generations is what is meant by the term “conservation.” It includes preserving the variety of species, genes, and ecosystems, in addition to the activities of the environment, such as the cycling of nutrients.
  • The conservation and careful management of the environment and natural resources. The preservation of specific quantities during chemical reactions or physical transformations.

Carrying capacity

  • The term “carrying capacity” is used to describe how many of a certain species may be safely housed in a given area.
  • The term “carrying capacity” refers to the typical population density of a certain species within its habitat.
  • The population of every given species is bound by the availability of essential resources including food, shelter, water, and suitable mates.


  • Microorganisms are unicellular (single celled) or multicellular organisms that cannot be seen with the naked eye.


  • Transpiration is the process by which water is evaporated from the leaves, stems, and other aerial parts of plants.
  • Transpiration is an important aspect of the water cycle, as it helps to regulate the temperature of the plant and provides water to the roots and other parts of the plant through the xylem.
  • Transpiration also helps to cool the plant, as the evaporation of water from the leaves absorbs heat from the surrounding air.
  • Transpiration occurs through the stomata, small pores found on the surface of leaves and stems, which open and close to allow for the exchange of gases and the release of water vapor.


  • Guttation is the term used to describe the process by which water is secreted in the form of a liquid through the hydathodes of the leaves.

Guttation is the process by which water is expelled in liquid form through the hydathodes of the leaves.


  • The process through which water is lost from plants through evaporation is known as transpiration.
  • Stomata in the leaves are the primary sites of action in this process.
  • The movement of water toward the higher sections of the plant is aided by the process of transpiration.

Transpiration is the process of evaporating water through the aerial parts of a plant. This occurs primarily through the stomata in leaves.


  • Fermentation occurs when microorganisms break down foods that are rich in sugars.


  • Putrefaction results from the action of microorganisms on foods that are high in protein.


  • Rancidity is caused by the activity of microbes on foods that are high in fat.

Tap root

  • Some plant species are distinguished by the presence of a single, massive root that emerges from the base of the stem. This is referred to as the tap root.
  • The tap root is the source of a significant number of additional roots.
  • These kind of roots are known as lateral roots. A tap root system is the name given to this particular kind of root system.

Fibrous root

  • Some plants have a huge number of small roots that started from the base of the plant stem.
  • These roots can be found throughout the plant.
  • A fibrous root system is the name given to this particular type of root system.

Leaf venation

  • The term “leaf venation” refers to the arrangement of the veinlets found in a leaf.
  • There are two primary types of veining that can be found in plants. Reticulate venation and Parallel venation.


  • The capacity of organisms to adjust to the conditions of their surroundings is referred to as adaptation.


  • Camouflage is the term given to the phenomenon in which it is difficult to distinguish individual animals from their environments due to the coloration of their bodies blending in with those environments.


  • The process of producing energy by reacting or burning simple foods with oxygen is known as respiration.


  • Expiration is the process by which carbon dioxide and water vapour are eliminated during respiration (exhalation or breathing out).


  • Inspiration refers to the intake of air required for respiration (inhalation or breathing in).

Body System

  • The system is a group of organs that perform a specific function or functions.

Body tissue

  • The tissue that transports water and minerals is known as xylem tissue.

Phloem tissue

  • Phloem tissue, which is located outside of the xylem tissue, transports food throughout the plant body.


  • An organ is a collection of different tissues that work together to perform a specific function or functions.


  • The cell is the fundamental structural and functional unit of life.

Soil erosion

  • Soil erosion is the removal of a location’s top soil layer by water, wind, and animals.

Excretory products

  • Excretory products are the waste products that are produced during chemical reactions within cells.


  • Excretion is the process by which excretory products are removed from the body.

Nervous coordination

  • The nervous system coordinates and controls the various functions of our body, which is known as nervous coordination.
  • Chemical coordination refers to the process of coordinating body organs via hormones.


  • Many changes occur both within the human body and in his surrounding environment.
  • The body should respond to these changes. To react, the receptors (eye, ear, nose, tongue, skin) must have a strong interaction with the effectors (muscles and glands). This is referred to as coordination.


  • The meninges are layers of special connective tissues that protect the brain and spinal cord.

Cerebrospinal fluid

  • Cerebrospinal fluid is a special fluid that fills the meninges.

Peripheral nervous system

  • The peripheral nervous system refers to all of the nerves that exist outside of the spinal cord and brain.

Cranial nerves

  • Branches of the nervous system that leave the skull directly from the brain are called cranial nerves.. There are a total of 12 pairs of cranial nerves.

Spinal nerves

  • Spinal nerves are nerves that emerge from the spinal cord. Humans have 31 pairs of spinal nerves.


  • An impulse is an electrical signal that travels along a nerve.


  • Transportation is the process by which plants transport raw materials for various biological processes and the products of these processes to the appropriate locations within the plant.


  • Diffusion is the process by which a substance moves from a high concentration area to a low concentration area.


  • Osmosis is the movement of water molecules across a semipermeable membrane from a region of higher water concentration to a region of lower water concentration.

Semipermeable membranes

  • Cellophane allows only water molecules to pass through while keeping salt and condis molecules out. Semipermeable membranes are the name given to such membranes.

Mass flow

  • Food produced in the leaves is also transported to the rest of the plant via the phloem tissues. This transport of photosynthetic products as a unit along the phloem tissues is known as mass flow.


  • Metamorphosis refers to the process by which some living organisms undergo different morphological changes at different stages of their life cycle in order to become adults.

Complete metamorphosis

  • Complete metamorphosis is defined as metamorphosis with significant morphological differences between stages.

Incomplete metamorphosis

  • Incomplete metamorphosis occurs when there are no significant morphological changes in the stages of the life cycle.

Food web

  • Food webs are the mutual relationships for food among organisms.
  • In the biosphere, different trophic levels of many food chains are interconnected in a web-like structure. Because of this relationship, an organism is free to rely on various types of food.
  • This helps to avoid organism bioaccumulation.

Food chain

  • A food chain is the sequence of energy and material flow from producer to consumer, such as primary consumer, and then to secondary consumer.


  • Autotrophs are organisms that can convert simple inorganic compounds into organic compounds to meet their nutritional needs, such as green plants, algae, and some bacteria.
  • Autotrophs are classified into two groups based on the energy source used to produce their food: photo-autotrophs and chemo-autotrophs. Photoautotrophs are green plants, while chemoautotrophs are bacteria.


  • Heterotrophs are animals that must rely on outside sources for their nutrition. They rely on food generated by other organisms. As a result, they are referred to as consumers.


  • Decomposers are organisms that feed on the bodies of dead organisms and organic waste products by converting complex organic compounds into simple compounds.
  • Saprophytes, such as bacteria and fungi, are members of this group. This is known as decomposition.

Greenhouse effect

  • The earth’s temperature is determined by a steady-state balance of energy received from the sun and energy radiated back by the earth.
  • Carbon dioxide, water vapour, methane, ozone, and CFC absorb radiation emitted by the earth and re-radiate some of it back to the earth’s surface.
  • This re-radiation aids in warming the earth and maintaining a climate suitable for life. This is known as the greenhouse effect, and the gases involved are known as greenhouse gases.

Food additives

  • Food additives are substances that are added to food to improve its taste, odor, appearance, nutritively, and shelf life.


  • Biomagnification is the accumulation of toxic chemical pollutants along with food chains from one trophic level to the next.


  • Desertification refers to a change in the ground conditions that makes it unsuitable for plant growth.
  • Desertification is caused by deforestation, the greenhouse effect, salination, and natural causes such as weather changes.
  • This results in irregular monsoon rains, which cause droughts.

Blood transfusion

  • Blood transfusions include the donation of blood from one human being to another.
  • The person who donates blood is known as the donor, while the person who receives it is known as the recipient. However, blood transfusion between two people is not possible.

Universal recipient

  • All other blood groups can receive blood from blood group AB. As a result, blood group AB is known as the universal recipient.

Universal donor

  • Blood group O is compatible with all other blood groups. As a result, blood group O is known as the universal donor.


  • Agglutination is the clumping of transfused blood particles in the recipient’s body.

Tropic Movements

  • Tropic movements are growth or movements that occur as a result of a direct influence between the stimulus and response directions.
  • Tropic movements occur as a result of the action of growth substances. The response can be either towards or away from the stimulus.
  • Positive tropism occurs in the direction of the stimulus. Negative tropism occurs in the absence of the stimulus.

Nastic movements

  • The direction of response in nastic movements is independent of the stimulus direction.
  • Response is always directed in a specific direction, regardless of stimulus direction. This reaction has nothing to do with growth substances induced by an external stimulus.
  • The majority of them are caused by turgor change. Pulvinus is a structure found in legume plants that appears as a swelling at the base of the petiole or leaflet. It has parenchyma cells that move in response to changes in turgor pressure.

In-situ conservation

  • The term “in-situ conservation” describes the act of keeping an organism in its native environment.
  • Plants grow in an environment that contains all of the external factors required for growth. As a result, plants can be destroyed in their natural habitat as a result of external threats.
  • As a result, it is critical to protect plants in their natural habitat.

Theory of biochemical evolution

  • This theory confirms that at the beginning of the Earth, the gases in the atmosphere reacted with each other, resulting in the formation of the ingredients necessary for life.
  • The energy required for this is thought to have been supplied by electric discharges during lightning, volcano eruptions, and the sun’s ultra violet radiation.
  • These materials became dissolved in rainwater and accumulated in oceans. The primordial soup was the name given to this mixture.


  • Novel species can evolve from previous species during the evolution process. This is known as speciation, and it helps to broaden biodiversity.

Endemic species

  • Some species are endemic to each region due to biodiversity. Endangered species are those that can only be found in one geographical region or country.


  • Hotspots are areas with a high density of living organisms.


  • All living organisms in a community, as well as the physical environment in which they interact, are referred to as an ecosystem.


  • Organelles are small structures found within cells that perform various functions.

Typical cell

  • The typical cell is the cell that contains all of the organelles.

Cell division

  • Cell division is the process of forming new cells through the division of cellular materials.

Cellular respiration

  • Cellular respiration is the process by which stored food is converted into energy within the cells.


  • Irritability is defined as the ability to respond to stimuli received from either an internal or external environment.


  • A stimulus is a change that is strong enough to elicit a response.


  • Responses are the reactions that occur in response to changes in the environment.


  • Excretion is the removal of waste products from the body that are produced during metabolism.


  • Reproduction is the process by which a unicellular or multicellular organism produces a new generation in order to ensure the survival of their species.

Cross pollination

  • Cross pollination is the process of depositing matured pollen of a flower on the stigma of another flower of the same species or another flower of the same plant.
  • In this case, stamens mature before pistils (proterandry) or pistils mature before stamens (proterandry) (protogyny).


  • Parthenocarpy is the process of developing fruits without fertilization.

Seed germination

  • Seed germination is the activation of the embryo in a seed and its development into a seedling.
  • The following elements are required for seed germination.

1) Seed viability

2) Air (Oxygen)

3) Moisture or water

4) Optimum temperature

  • Water activates the enzymes in the cotyledons during seed germination, and stored complex food is digested to simple nutrients. The nutrients aid in the development of the radical and plumule.


  • Even when all of the germination requirements are met, seeds do not always germinate. This is referred to as dormancy.
  • Dormancy in seeds is an adaptation to harsh environmental conditions.
  • The following factors influence seed dormancy.

1) An embryo that has not matured

2) Testa impermeability to water or oxygen


  • A tissue is a group of cells with a common origin that have been modified to perform specific functions in the body.

Aerobic respiration

  • In the presence of oxygen, respiration that takes place in cells is called the aerobic respiration.

Anaerobic respiration

  • Some organisms can survive without oxygen. Anaerobic respiration is the process by which organisms breathe without the presence of oxygen.


  • Metabolism is the sum of biochemical reactions that occur in the living body.


  • Excretion is the removal of excretory products produced during metabolism from the body.

Heart beat

  • The contraction of the heart’s atria and ventricles is what causes the heart to expel blood. The contraction and relaxation of the heart muscle is what is meant by the term “heart beat.”

Diastole, systole, intervening relaxation

  • When the ventricles dilate, the atria contract. Following that, the ventricles contract and the atria dilate. Diastole (0.1 seconds) is atria contraction, whereas systole (0.1 seconds) is ventricle contraction (0.3 seconds). Following that, the atria and ventricles relax, which is known as intervening relaxation (0.4 seconds).

Lymphatic system

  • Excess tissue fluid within intercellular spaces communicates with the blood circulatory system via a unique tubular system known as the lymphatic system.


  • The fluid that flows through the lymphatics is known as lymph.

Definition – Chemistry

Melting or fusion

  • Melting, also known as fusion, is the process of changing a substance from a solid to a liquid by applying heat to it.
  • This occurs when the molecules of the solid gain enough energy to overcome the attractive forces holding them in place, allowing them to move more freely and flow.
  • The melting point is the temperature at which a solid material begins to melt.


  • Vaporization is the process of a substance transitioning from a liquid or solid state to a gaseous state.
  • This can occur through the application of heat or by changing the pressure on the substance.
  • Vaporization is an endothermic process, meaning it requires an input of energy.
  • The temperature at which a substance vaporizes is known as its boiling point.


  • Condensation is the process by which a gas or vapor changes into a liquid. It occurs when the temperature or pressure of the gas is increased, or when the gas comes into contact with a surface that is cooler than the gas itself.
  • This process is the opposite of evaporation, which is the transformation of a liquid into a gas or vapor.
  • In everyday life, condensation is a typical occurrence. For example, when water vapor in the air comes into contact with a cold surface, such as a window on a cold day, it will condense into droplets of water.
  • Condensation is also a key process in many scientific and industrial applications. For example, condensation is used in refrigeration and air conditioning systems to remove heat from a space or object.
  • It is also used in chemical and biological processes to purify and separate substances, and in power generation to produce steam for electricity.


  • Freezing is the process of turning a liquid into a solid state by reducing its temperature to below its freezing point.
  • This can occur naturally, as when water freezes into ice.


  • Sublimation is the process by which a solid substance changes directly into a gas without first melting into a liquid.
  • Sublimation occurs when the molecules of a solid gain enough energy to break their bonds and become a gas. This can happen when a solid is heated to a high temperature or when it is exposed to a vacuum.
  • Some examples of substances that can undergo sublimation include dry ice (solid carbon dioxide), iodine, and naphthalene (mothballs).


  • Matter is a term used to describe anything that occupies space and has mass.
  • Matter is made up of atoms, which are the basic units of matter and the defining structure of elements.
  • There are three primary forms that matter can take on: solid, liquid, and gas. Pressure and temperature are two factors that determine a substance’s behavior.
  • For example, water boils and turns into steam (a gas) when it is heated to a high enough temperature and the pressure is low enough. When the temperature and pressure are lowered, the steam condenses back into a liquid. If the temperature and pressure are further decreased, the liquid will freeze into a solid.
  • Matter is also classified as either pure substances or mixtures.

Pure substances

  • Pure substances, such as elements and compounds, are made up of a single type of atom or molecule and have fixed properties.


  • Mixtures are made up of two or more substances that are physically combined, but not chemically combined.
  • Mixtures can be further classified as either homogeneous (uniform throughout) or heterogeneous (not uniform throughout).


  • The ability to conduct work or create change is referred to as energy.
  • It is a fundamental property of matter and is present in many forms, such as heat, light, sound, and kinetic energy (the energy of motion).
  • Energy can be transferred from one place to another, converted from one form to another, and stored for later use.
  • The total amount of energy in a system is conserved, meaning that it cannot be created or destroyed, only converted from one form to another. This is known as the law of energy conservation.
  • There are many different types of energy, including thermal energy (the energy of heat), electrical energy, nuclear energy, and chemical energy (the energy stored in the bonds between atoms).
  • Energy can be harnessed and used to perform work, such as powering machines or vehicles, or it can be used to produce change, such as lighting a bulb or cooking food.


  • Compressibility is a measure of how much a substance can be compressed, or squeezed, into a smaller volume.
  • It is the reciprocal of the bulk modulus, which is a measure of how much a substance resists being compressed.
  • A substance that is highly compressible can be easily squeezed into a smaller volume, while a substance that is less compressible is more resistant to being compressed.
  • The compressibility of a substance depends on its density, temperature, and pressure.


  • The term “element” refers to any substance that is completely devoid of any impurities and possesses a set of characteristics that cannot be further subdivided using either physical or chemical processes.


  • The chemical combination of two or more elements in a specific ratio results in the formation of compounds, which are substances that are both homogenous and pure.

Conduction of heat

  • Conduction of heat is the process of transferring heat from particle to particle without the particles moving through a solid.


  • Convection is the process of transferring heat through liquids and gases using convectional currents.

Heat transfer

  • Heat transfer is the movement of heat from one location to another.

Boiling point

  • The boiling point of a substance is the constant temperature at which a liquid substance changes to a gaseous state.

Melting point

  • The melting point of a substance is the constant temperature at which a solid substance changes to a liquid state.

Expansion of a liquid

  • The expansion of a liquid is the increase in volume of a liquid caused by the gain of heat.


  • Using the chemical effect of electric current, a metal can be plated on a metallic object. This is referred to as electroplating.
  • Electroplating is the process of applying a thin metallic layer to a given surface using electrolysis.

Exothermic reactions

  • Exothermic reactions are chemical reactions that occur as a result of the evolution of heat.

Endothermic reactions

  • Endothermic reactions are those that occur as a result of heat absorption.


  • Oxidation is the loss of electrons from a given species (atoms, molecules, or ions).


  • The hydrogen ions (H+) that gain electrons become hydrogen gas molecules (H2). A reduction occurs when a given species (atoms, molecules, or ions) gains electrons.

Metal corrosion

  • Metal corrosion occurs when metals undergo changes like these when exposed to air.


  • Rusting is the corrosion of iron or steel in the presence of air.


  • Polymers are large molecules formed by the combination of a large number of small molecules.


  • Polymerization is the process of forming polymers. Monomers are the small molecules that form polymers, and polymers are the large molecules formed by the polymerization of monomers. Pay attention to the chain formed by connecting some paper clips.

Chemical bonds

  • Chemical bonds are the attractive forces or bindings that result from the rearrangement of electrons in the valence shell for stabilizing the atoms of elements as described above.

Chemical combination reaction

  • A chemical combination reaction is the formation of a new compound by the combination of elements with elements, elements with compounds, or compounds with compounds.

Chemical decomposition reaction

  • A chemical decomposition reaction occurs when a compound decomposes into simpler compounds or elements, or compounds and elements.

Single displacement reactions

  • Single displacement reactions occur when an element displaces another element in a compound, occupying its place and forming another compound.

Double displacement reaction

  • A double displacement reaction occurs when an element or radical in one compound exchanges places with an element or radical in another compound.

Activity series

  • The activity series is the series formed by arranging metals in descending order of their reactivity.


  • The combination of H+ ions released by an acid and OH- ions released by a base to form water molecules is known as neutralization.
  • As a result, when an acid reacts with a base, both the acidic and basic properties disappear.


  • Isotopes of an element are atoms with different mass numbers in the same element.

Electro negativity

  • When an atom of one element is bonded to an atom of another element, it has the ability to attract the electrons of the bond towards itself. It is called electro negativity.

The atomic number

  • The atomic number of an element is equal to its proton count.

Mass number

  • The mass number is the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atom’s nucleus.

Electronic configuration

  • Electronic configuration is the representation of how electrons are filled in the respective energy levels from the one closest to an atom’s nucleus outwards.


  • Electrolytes are liquids or solutions that conduct electricity.


  • Electrolysis is the chemical change caused by passing an electric current through an electrolyte. The electrolyte is broken down into simpler components during this process.


  • Electroplating is the process of plating a specific metal on another surface using electricity.

Homogenous mixtures

  • Homogenous mixtures are those in which the components cannot be distinguished from one another and the properties and composition are consistent throughout.

Heterogeneous mixtures

  • Heterogeneous mixtures are those in which the constituents can be distinguished from one another.

Definition – Physics

Resistance of a conductor

  • Resistance is a measure of the opposition to the flow of electric current in a conductor. It is defined as the ratio of the voltage across the conductor to the current through it.
  • The unit of resistance is the ohm (Ω).
  • In other words, resistance is a property of a conductor that determines how much current will flow through it when a voltage is applied.
  • The higher the resistance of a conductor, the less current will flow through it for a given voltage. Conversely, the lower the resistance of a conductor, the more current will flow through it for a given voltage.
  • The resistance of a conductor depends on several factors, including its material, cross-sectional area, length, and temperature. For example, a conductor made of a material with a high resistivity, such as copper, will have a lower resistance than a conductor made of a material with a low resistivity, such as aluminum. Similarly, a conductor with a larger cross-sectional area will have a lower resistance than a conductor with a smaller cross-sectional area, because the current can flow through a larger area more easily. The length of the conductor also affects its resistance; a longer conductor will have a higher resistance than a shorter conductor.
  • The temperature of the conductor can also affect its resistance; as the temperature increases, the resistance of most conductors will increase.

Magnetic field

  • The area around a magnet in which the magnetic force is distributed is referred to as the magnetic field of that magnet.


  • Geomagnetism refers to the magnetic field that exists near the earth.
  • North poles always point in one direction, whereas south poles point in the opposite direction. Even when the positions of bar magnets and compasses are reversed, their poles point in the same direction. This is due to the existence of a massive magnetic field around the globe that runs via the north and south poles.

Potential difference

  • Potential difference, also known as voltage, is a measure of the electrical potential energy per unit charge between two points in an electric field.
  • It is defined as the work required to move a unit positive charge from one point to another against the electric field.
  • In an electric circuit, the potential difference between two points is the energy required to move a unit charge from one point to the other. The unit of potential difference is the volt (V).
  • In general, the potential difference between two points in an electric circuit is an important parameter that determines the flow of electric current and the distribution of electric charge within the circuit.


  • When hit with another object, producing a sound that continues after the impact.

Electrical conductivity

  • Capacity of the substance to allow the passage of electric current.

Thermal conductivity

  • Capability of the substance to conduct heat through itself.


  • Durability in terms of wear and tear as well as scratch resistance of the material.


  • The capacity to withstand being dragged into a wire without breaking.


  • Capacity to lengthen in response to pulling, with the ability to return to its original state when the pulling force is withdrawn.


  • Ability to have sheets hammered out of it without it shattering into bits.


  • Surface that reflects the light that is cast upon it, giving it a reflective sheen.


  • Being susceptible to shattering or being crushed into fragments when a force is applied to it.


  • When the temperature rises, there is no corresponding increase in the amount of mass, hence there is an expansion in volume.


  • The nature, as perceived by the sense of touch, which may be rough or smooth.

Melting point

  • The temperature at which a substance changes from its solid state to its liquid form is known as its melting point.

Boiling point

  • The temperature at which a substance changes from being in the condition of being liquid to being in the state of being gas.


  • Density is a measure of the amount of mass contained in a given volume.
  • It is defined as the mass per unit volume of a substance and is typically expressed in units of grams per cubic centimeter.
  • Density is an important physical property that can be used to identify and characterize materials.
  • It is often used in a variety of fields, such as chemistry, physics, and engineering, to understand the physical properties of substances and how they interact with each other.
  • The density of a substance is determined by its atomic or molecular structure and can be calculated using the following formula:
  • Density = Mass/Volume

Electromagnetic induction

  • Electromagnetic induction is the process by which electricity is generated inside of a conductor when a magnetic field is intersecting with the conductor.

Kinetic energy

  • Kinetic energy is the type of energy that is contained in an item that is in motion.

Potential energy

  • Potential energy is the name given to the form of energy that can be stored in an item as a result of a change in position or a change in shape.

Tectonic plates

  • The crust can be thought of as the outermost layer of the earth.
  • Tectonic plates are the portions that make up the crust’s many divisions. The motion of these plates is relative to one another.

Lateral inversion

  • When looking at an object through a plane mirror, a phenomenon known as lateral inversion occurs. This causes the right and left sides of the object to switch places.


  • Resolution is the shortest distance between two points that must exist between them in order for those points to be considered to be separate points.


  • The term “magnification power” refers to the amount of times that the specimen is made to appear larger than its actual size.
  • The result of multiplying the magnification of the eye piece with the magnification of the objective lens is the amount of times that the image will be magnified.


  • The total length of a motion’s path is defined as distance. The direction of motion in this case may or may not change from time to time. As a result, distance has no definite direction.


  • The displacement of a motion is the linear distance between its starting and ending points.

Electric current

  • The passage of electric charges is defined as an electric current.
  • When such accumulated electrostatic charges begin to move, an electric current is produced.


  • The resistance is the impediment to the flow of an electric current through a conductor. Resistors are components that have the property of resistance.


  • Temperature is the measurement of a substance’s warmth or coldness.
  • The average kinetic energy of the particles that make up an object is measured by temperature.


  • A disease vector is an agent that transports and transmits pathogens (viruses, protozoa) from an infectious organism to a healthy organism.


  • The earth attracts the moon, but the moon does not fall on the earth because it revolves quickly around the earth. Satellites are celestial bodies smaller than the moon that orbit the Earth.

Artificial satellite

  • An artificial satellite is a rocket-launched object that revolves around the Earth.


  • Heat is defined as the transfer of energy from one object to another as a result of a temperature difference between the two objects.

Heat capacity

  • The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of an object by one unit is referred to as the object’s heat capacity.

Specific heat capacity

  • The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of a given substance by one degree is known as the substance’s specific heat capacity.

Latent heat

  • The latent heat is the heat absorbed by the system without changing its temperature while the change of state is occurring.

Thermal expansion

  • Thermal expansion is the increase in dimensions of a substance caused by an increase in temperature. That is, expansion refers to an increase in length, area, or volume. Contraction is the decrease in dimensions of a substance caused by a decrease in temperature.

Thermal radiation

  • Thermal radiation is the non-material propagation of heat in the form of electromagnetic radiation from a warm body.


  • “rectification” refers to the process of converting an alternating current into a direct current that flows only in one direction.

Magnetic field

  • There is a region around any magnet where the magnet has an effect. The magnetic field exists in this region. A magnetic field is not visible to the naked eye. As a result, we cannot see a magnetic field. It can, however, influence another magnet or a moving charge. Some animals, such as birds, have been discovered to use the earth’s magnetic field for navigation.

Electromagnetic induction

  • The formation of an electromotive force between the terminals of a conductor when the conductor is at rest in a changing magnetic field or when the conductor is moving in a constant magnetic field is referred to as electromagnetic induction.


  • The moment of the force around the axis is defined as the product of the force and the perpendicular distance from the axis of rotation to the force’s line of action.

Electrostatic charges

  • Electrostatic charges are charges that are found stationary on an object in this manner.


  • The maximum displacement shown by the particles participating in the wave motion is known as the wave’s amplitude.


  • The wavelength (λ) of a wave is the distance between one particle and the next closest particle participating in the wave motion and having the same state of motion.


  • The frequency is defined as the number of oscillations performed by a particle in a unit of time (f). The reciprocal of the period is frequency. The frequency is measured in Hertz (Hz), and one Hertz is defined as one oscillation per second.

Electromagnetic spectrum

  • The properties of electromagnetic waves vary greatly across frequency ranges.
  • The electromagnetic spectrum refers to the various frequency ranges identified by such characteristics.
  • The electromagnetic spectrum’s main types of electromagnetic waves

Visible light

  • Visible light is the electromagnetic spectrum range to which our eyes are sensitive. It is only a small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
  • The visible light frequencies range from 4.28 1014 Hz to 7.69 1014 Hz, corresponding to a wavelength range of 690 nm to 400 nm.

Infra-sound, ultrasound

  • Sounds with frequencies less than 20 Hz are referred to as infra-sound, while sounds with frequencies greater than 20000 Hz are referred to as ultrasound.
  • As a result, ultrasound waves are sound waves with frequencies above the human hearing range.

Refraction of light

  • Refraction of light is the bending of light rays as they enter one medium from another.

Reflection of light

  • When a light ray strikes a surface, it bounces back into the same medium. This is known as light reflection.

Sound reflection

  • Sound reflection occurs when sound bounces back from an obstacle.


  • Echo is a second hearing caused by the reflection of sound after the first.


  • Reverberation is the long-term persistence of sound due to the inability to distinguish between the original sound and the echo.

Refraction of light

  • Refraction of light refers to the change in direction of light as it travels from one transparent medium to another.


  • Dispersion is the separation of white light when it passes through a prism.
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