Differences between Vertebrates and invertebrates
Vertebrates and invertebrates are two major animal groupings that differ in a variety of ways.
Skeletal system: Vertebrates have a backbone formed of bones or cartilage that supports and protects the spinal cord, but invertebrates do not have a backbone and instead have a soft, flexible exoskeleton.
Nervous system: Invertebrates have a decentralized nervous system with numerous tiny ganglia (clusters of nerve cells) dispersed throughout their bodies, whereas vertebrates have a centralized nervous system with a brain and spinal cord.
Locomotion: Vertebrates move in a variety of ways, including walking, running, swimming, and flying, whereas many invertebrates crawl, slither, or float.
Reproduction: Vertebrates can reproduce either sexually or asexually, but most invertebrates reproduce sexually.
Sense organs: Vertebrates have well-developed sense organs such as eyes, hearing, and noses, although invertebrates’ sensory capacities vary greatly depending on the species.
Diversity: Invertebrates account for the vast majority of known animal species, accounting for over 95% of all animal species, while vertebrates account for a far smaller fraction of known animal species.
Evolution: Vertebrates have been around for more than 500 million years, while invertebrates have been alive for considerably longer, extending back over 700 million years.
Differences between Vertebrates and invertebrates simplified
For Grade 3:
- Vertebrates have a backbone or spine, while invertebrates do not.
- Examples of vertebrates are fish, birds, mammals, and reptiles, while examples of invertebrates are insects, spiders, and worms.
- Vertebrates generally have more complex body structures and systems compared to invertebrates.
For Grade 5:
- Vertebrates have an internal skeleton made of bone or cartilage, while invertebrates have external skeletons or no skeleton at all.
- Vertebrates have a well-developed nervous system with a brain and spinal cord, while invertebrates have a less complex nervous system.
- Vertebrates are usually larger and more mobile than invertebrates.
For Grade 9:
- Vertebrates are classified into five main groups: fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals, while invertebrates are classified into numerous phyla.
- Vertebrates have a closed circulatory system with a heart, while invertebrates have an open circulatory system.
- Vertebrates have a more advanced respiratory system, with lungs or gills, while invertebrates have a variety of respiratory structures such as spiracles or tracheae.
For Grade 10:
- Vertebrates have bilateral symmetry, meaning they have a left and right side that are mirror images of each other, while invertebrates may have radial symmetry or no symmetry at all.
- Vertebrates have a more complex digestive system with specialized organs, such as a stomach and intestines, while invertebrates may have a simple digestive cavity or tube.
- Vertebrates have a greater ability to regulate their body temperature, while invertebrates are more reliant on their environment for temperature regulation.
For Grade 11:
- Vertebrates have a more developed immune system compared to invertebrates, with the ability to produce antibodies and white blood cells.
- Vertebrates have a greater capacity for learning and memory compared to invertebrates.
- Vertebrates have a higher metabolic rate and require more energy to maintain their body functions compared to invertebrates.