What Do Different Types of Lab Equipment Look Like?
Biology is a broad subject
Biology is a science that studies the natural world. It is a broad field that includes everything from the study of plants and animals to the study of the environment and human health. There are a number of different branches of biology, including cell biology, molecular biology, and biochemistry.
The field of biology is extremely important because it allows us to understand how the world works and how we can improve it. There are also a number of practical applications for biology, such as in medicine and agriculture. There are many different types of experiments in biology. One common type is called a lab experiment.
A lab experiment is a type of scientific experiment that is performed in a controlled environment. For example, you might conduct a lab experiment to see if a certain drug works better than another drug. Another common type of experiment in biology is called an animal experiment. An animal experiment is a type of scientific experiment that involves an animal (such as a mouse or rat). In animal experiments, you want to see if the animal responds differently to different stimuli. There are also many other types of experiments in biology, such as field studies and human studies.
Many instruments are needed for biology lab experiments
The equipment in a laboratory is just as important as the chemicals and reagents that are used in it. The right lab equipment can make the process of working with solids, liquids, and gases easier, quicker, and more efficient.
Lab equipment names and pictures list will help you navigate through your first time shopping for lab supplies. This article covers all you need to know about common types of lab equipment, from benchtop centrifuges to microscope cabinets and balance scales.
In a laboratory, it’s important to have quality and reliable equipment that can be relied on. Lab Equipment names and pictures will help you recognize different types of lab equipment more quickly. This blog post lists some key characteristics of lab equipment, to help you identify the right kind of lab equipment for your needs.
Write a list of lab equipment needed for a biology practical session
- Test tube
- Boiling tube
- Ignition tube
- Test tube holder
- Test tube racks
- Wire brush
- Safety goggles
- Lab Aprons
- Latex gloves
- Glass slides and coverslips
- Magnifying glass
- Electronic balance
- Spring balance
- Triple beam balance
- Centrifuge machine
- Mortar and pestle
- Hot plate
- Laboratory water bath
- Dissecting tool kit
- Dissecting pan
- Crucible tongs
- Conical flasks
- Round bottom flask
- Flat bottom flask
- Swan neck flask
- Evaporating dish
- Clay triangle
- Petri dish
- Inoculating loop
- Watch glass
- Wash bottle
- Graduated cylinders and Measuring cylinder
- Bunsen Burner
- Spirit Lamp
- Tripod and gauze
- pH papers
- Litmus papers
- Cobalt chloride papers
- Filter papers
#1 Test tube
Test tubes are also used to transport liquids, such as solutions, between containers. They are also used to store and transport materials such as chemicals, buffers, and solvents.
There are two main types of test tubes: glass and plastic. Glass test tubes are made from glass materials. Plastic test tubes are made from plastic materials. Both types of test tubes can be stored in a refrigerator or freezer. They can also be transported in a cooler, such as a cooler with ice packs.
Who invented test tubes?
What is the standard size of a test tube?
There are different sizes. The usual range of width and height are;
- width – 10 to 20 mm
- height – 50 to 200 mm
#2 Boiling tube
A boiling tube is usually made from glass and has an opening at one end. Boiling tubes can also be used in place of test tubes when a larger capacity is required.
These tubes are often composed of Pyrex glass, which can withstand high temperatures.
Test tube vs boiling tube
- Boiling tubes are made of Pyrex or borosilicate. Test tubes are made of glass or plastic.
- Boiling tubes are wide-mouthed compared to test tubes.
- Boiling tubes have more capacity than test tubes.
- Boiling tubes are suitable for boiling as the name implies. Test tubes are best for storing and heating if needed.
Why heat test tubes at an angle?
- As a safety precaution
- Easy for gasses to escape
How to safely heat in a test tube?
- Use safety eyewear / gloves / aprons
- Hold the test tube properly with a test tube holder (as shown in the pictures)
- Hold the test tube at an angle and away from yourself as well as others.
- Fill the substance 1/5 of the tube when appropriate
- The heat should be provided from the top to bottom
- Be ready if accidents happen – have eye washing facilities and first aid if needed
When heating a solution, gasses can escape in an explosive manner. If you heat from the bottom there is a higher chance of spilling as the top part of the solution is exerting pressure on the bottom.
When you heat it at an angle and from top to bottom the newly formed gasses can escape without spilling the liquids.
#3 Ignition tube
An ignition tube is a laboratory tube used to store small amounts of things that are being heated directly by a Bunsen burner or other heat source. They are usually disposable.
Test tube vs ignition tube
- The ignition tube is smaller compared to test tubes.
- Ignition tubes are thick-walled. Test tubes are comparatively thin.
- Ignition tubes are made of hardened glass and test tubes are made of either glass or plastic.
#4 Test tube holder
A test tube holder is a lab apparatus that helps to grip the test tubes when chemicals can fall during an experiment. They also aid to touch heated test tubes or boiling tubes.
This can be also used when a reagent is heated with the use of a Bunsen burner.
#5 Test tube racks
The function of a test tube rack is to contain test tubes, and boiling tubes that are needed for an experiment.
Test tube racks are designed to keep numerous test tubes upright at once. It helps to manage space, transport as well as storing in the refrigerator.
How do you store test tubes during experiments?
Test tubes are stored in racks during experiments. Racks support test tubes and keep them upright. It is better to name the test tubes when storing them in a rack.
#6 Wire brush
Wire brushes are used to clean the slag or dirt inside the test tubes. They come in different sizes and some variations in design to adapt to their function. Some are made of nylon and it is a must have in classroom laboratory.
A wire brush has bristles attached to a metal wire.
How to clean test tubes?
There are several different ways to clean. Please note that holding the test tube against the tap water flow to fill in, will not effectively wash the bottom of the test tube.
Rinse immediately after use and use a brush a little bit smaller than the diameter of the test tube. Brush the inside of the tube thoroughly. Then clean with hot water / soap water. This is enough for most test tubes. If there is remaining residue then wash the tube with acetone.
#7 Safety goggles
Safety goggles physically cover the eyes from front as well as the top, bottom, and sides giving a complete protection from splashes, fumes, and vapors.
Safety glasses are different from safety goggles
Safety glasses can only provide physical protection from in front of the eye. There is a chance of damage to the eyes from irritants, splashes, and fumes from sides, top, and bottom of the safety glasses.
Wearing spectacles and safety goggles
It is needed to wear safety goggles on top of your regular spectacles. Spectacles cannot provide protection to the eye in lab experiments.
#8 Lab Aprons and Lab coats
A lab coat provides minor protection from splashes onto your body. This can provide some sort of prevention from contamination as well.
Lab aprons are made of rubber or plastic mostly. They are disposable. Rubber lap aprons are suitable for protection from splashes that are corrosive and irritant.
Wearing both a Lab apron and Lab coat
First, you have to wear the lab coat and then you have to wear the lab apron. Both of them together provide satisfactory protection from splashes and contamination. Here are some of the best lap coats and aprons we found.
#9 Latex gloves
Latex gloves provide physical protection for your hands. They also avoid contamination from your skin.
Nitrile gloves vs Latex gloves
Latex gloves are cheaper and thin compared to nitrile gloves. Nitrile gloves are mostly used by healthcare personnel. Nitrile gloves usually come in blue color.
I have a Latex allergy – Can I wear gloves
Nitrile gloves can be a better option if you have a Latex allergy. But it is better to consult your doctor and get professional help before choosing a glove.
What gloves are blue in color?
Nitrile gloves are mostly manufactured in blue color so that they can be differentiated easily from Latex gloves.
How tight should gloves be?
Well, not too tight and not too loose. You should be able to form a fist without much restriction. There should not be many wrinkles when you wear it. If you are not sure try different sizes of gloves first prior to any lab experiment.
A microscope is a tool that allows you to see tiny objects up close. It’s used to see tiny details, such as the structure of a cell or the structure of a virus. A microscope can be used to examine different types of cells, such as brain cells or skin cells. It can also be used to examine different types of microbes, such as bacteria or fungi that cause diseases.
It is a useful tool for a variety of purposes, such as microscopic examinations of tissues and organs, and pathology.
In the classroom laboratory, light microscopes are used. Monocular or Binocular compound light microscopes are the lab equipment that is commonly found.
Monocular light microscope
This is a typical compound light microscope. The students have to see the specimen with a single eye when using the simple light microscope.
Binocular light microscope
In this type of microscope, students can use both eyes to see the specimen and it can be more comfortable for the eyes. Using both eyes to see the specimen, reduces eye strain.
#11 Glass slides and coverslips
When examining a specimen first you have to place the specimen on the glass slide then you have to cover it with a coverslip. Glass slides and coverslips are both useful when examining specimens in the classroom laboratory.
Glass slides are used for mounting specimens in the laboratory
What is the use of coverslips
Coverslips are small glasses that are either round or square-shaped. They are used to cover the specimen that is mounted on the glass slide. Cover slips provide protection to the specimen. Coverslips prevent the specimen from drying, protects the lens and makes the specimen flat for a better view.
#12 Magnifying glass
A magnifying glass is a lab equipment and it can be considered as a form of simple microscope. It can enlarge the object seen through it.
A magnifying glass is a convex glass fixed to a metallic frame and a wooden or metal handle. The usual magnifying glass in the laboratory has a 2.25 times magnifying power.
#13 Electronic balance
With the electronic balance, you can measure the weight of materials in a quick and accurate manner. The scale is made to be used with lightweight chemicals and reagents in the laboratory.
Some types of balances found in the lab are precision balances, compact balances, and analytical balances.
#14 Spring balance
A spring balance is used to measure the weight (Force in Newtons). The object that needs to be measured has be hung in the spring balance. The spring balance should be kept or handled straight (vertically).
Some spring balances have an adjusting knob and some are marked in kilograms and grams.
A very short definition for a spring balance
A lab instrument to measure weight(kg) or force(N). It has a hook to hand objects, a spring that is attached to the hook and an indicator to show the result.
#15 Triple beam balance
Triple beam balance has three beams as its name suggests and a base and a weighing pan. The three beams have rides on them that can be moved to balance the weight of the measuring substance.
Three beams in the triple beam balance
The three beams are
- Middle beam – largest beam, has 100g increments
- Far beam – medium size beam, has 10g increments
- Front beam – small beam, can read from 0g to 10g, smallest value is 0.1g (100mg)
#16 Centrifuge machine
Centrifuge machine is an electric device that uses a motor to rotate a set of test tubes. Centrifugal force is used to rotate test tubes in radial axis to separate particles according to the density.
High density substances settle in the bottom of the test tube whereas lower density particles float on top.
A centrifuge machine can be used to separate contaminants in liquids and separate components of blood.
#17 Mortar and pestle
Mortar and pestle are used to crush solid particles to powdery materials. It is used to crush chemicals or else to grind some material and extract its juice as it is needed in the lab practical session.
Mortar is the bowl and, pestle is the rod like part used to crush. Wooden, porcelain and granite or marble made equipment are available.
Mortar and pestle labeled diagram
Thermometer is an instrument in the laboratory, that is used to measure the temperature. Laboratory thermometer has alcohol in it and the temperature range is -10 to 110 degrees Celsius.
Lab thermometer range of temperature
-10 degrees of Celsius to 110 degrees of Celsius
Liquid in lab thermometer
Alcohol is used in the lab thermometer
Temperature range of clinical thermometer
35 degrees Celsius to 42 degrees Celsius
Liquid used in clinical thermometer
A lab instrument that measures relative density / specific gravity of a liquid. It floats on liquids and follows Archimedes’ principle – buoyancy.
This is also known as lactometer when used with differentiating milk. The liquid level needs to be observed carefully for obtaining the value.
Reading the hydrometer correctly
- Use a transparent upright container to fill the liquid in which you wish to measure the density.
- Insert the hydrometer gently in a stirring manner.
- Hydrometer should not touch the edges of the container.
- The number of the hydrometer at the lowest point of the liquid should be read as the value.
The pressure exerted by the atmosphere is known as atmospheric pressure / barometric pressure. It is measured by barometer in the laboratory.
Atmospheric pressure works in all directions. This value is useful in some laboratory practical sessions as well as determining weather. The standard value is measured at sea level.
Stop clock / Stopwatch is used to measure a specific duration of time. It has a start / stop button and as soon as the button is released the clock starts from zero. At the next press it stops time and shows the duration of time elapsed. Digital stopwatches are used mostly in the classroom laboratory.
#22 Hot plate
An electric device that has a flat surface to place containers to heat in the laboratory. It is a simple yet useful device for heating reagents quickly.
Temperature in hot plate
With aluminum trays it can go up to 370 degrees Celsius. Iron or ceramic tops support up to 500 degrees Celsius temperatures.
Function of hot plate in biology
Hot plate is useful in sciences like biology, pathology histology etc. It provides even heating to glass containers that are placed on top of the heating surface of the hot plate in the lab.
#23 Laboratory water bath
Laboratory waters bath is a lab equipment that is used to heat samples with flammable chemicals. It is needed to incubate the sample at a constant temperature. It helps to heat flammable chemical contained solutions over a long period of time.
Parts of a water bath
A water bath is consisted of a stainless-steel chamber that contains water and samples, the heating source or heating unit and an interface with control buttons.
Types of water baths
There are few types of water baths that can be seen in laboratory based on the experimental purposes.
Circulating water bath- keeps the sample at a constant temperature
Shaking water bath – keeps the sample in motion
Heating and cooling naphthalene
- Naphthalene needs even healing and even cooling.
- Heating naphthalene should be done in a water bath for even distribution of heat.
- A conical flask is used in cooling naphthalene to provide even loss of heat.
What water is used in laboratory water bath?
Temperature range for a water bath
30 – 100 degrees Celsius
#24 Dissecting toolkit
There are several types of dissecting toolkits available. More common tools in the set are;
- dissecting blades
- dissecting forceps
- dissecting scissors
- pins and probes
- needles – straight and curved
Uses of forceps in dissection sessions
Forceps are used to tightly grasp parts of objects during dissections. Depending on the function, there are different types of forceps. They are for holding, clamping, crushing as well as for separating structures during the dissection.
#25 Dissecting pan
Dissecting pan is a useful lab equipment and in some dissecting toolkits it is included. Keeping the sample as well as providing a place to study the tissues are the uses of dissecting pan.
Dissecting trays are made of aluminum and there is a layer of paraffin applied.
Laboratory forceps is a gripping tool that helps to transfer delicate specimens. It helps to handle or manipulate small objects that are used in experiments without touching.
Material of lab forceps
Laboratory forceps are made of stainless steel, titanium, and plastic such as polystyrene, PMP (polymethyl pentene), PTFE, and reinforced nylon.
#27 Crucible tongs
Crucible tongs are like scissors but they have pincers at ends to grasp hot crucibles, containers, flasks and evaporating dishes.
Beaker tongs and crucible tongs
Although appears somewhat similar beaker tongs are specially made for handling beakers. Crucible tongs can be used to handle smaller beakers.
A retort stand is used in labs to hold or support other containers. Stands can be support stands, ring stands and clamp stands. Depending on the experiment, the clamp that requires differs.
Ring stand function, uses
A ring stand is commonly used for heating chemicals with a Bunsen burner. When heating a crucible, a clay triangle is also used.
Clamp stand function, uses
A clamp stand holds (clamps) glassware like flasks, tubes, burettes, probes, thermometers etc.
Beakers are often used in the laboratory as containers to hold liquids or solid substances. It can be used to hold chemicals when doing reactions or other activities such as titrations, filtering, pouring or transferring solutions, measuring, heating and so on. It can be considered a multipurpose lab equipment. It contains a little spout or beak to help when pouring.
Beakers are glass containers that are cylindrical in shape and have a flat bottom. They are made up of borosilicate glasses or maybe plastics.
Beakers come in a variety of sizes, ranging from one millilitre to many litres.
Types of beakers
Standard beakers are called Griffin beakers – for being lower beakers. Taller beakers are called Berzelius beakers. Third type is called crystallizer and often has no markings. Phillips beaker is another type of beaker with a sloping edge.
#30 Conical flasks
Conical flasks are common glassware used in the lab. It is easy to swirl contents in a conical flask without spilling. Therefore, it is used in titrations.
Conical flask volume
Common volumes / capacities of conical flask are 25 ml, 50 ml, 100 ml, 125 ml, 150 ml, 250 ml, 300 ml, 500 ml, 1000 ml
Conical flask uses
- Mixing chemicals
- Heating and boiling solutions
- For titrations
- Measure liquids
- Store chemicals during an experiment
Using a bung and a delivery tube with conical flask
A bung and a delivery tube can be used to channel gasses from conical flask to a test tube. This becomes useful when heating a solution in a conical flask. Bung seals the opening of the conical flask. Delivery tube provides a passage for gasses to pass into underwater collecting duct / test tube.
#31 Round bottom flask
Round bottom flask is used for heating chemicals in the lab. The round structure is more heat stable and provides even distribution of heat for the solution inside. When heating or keeping on a table it should be clamped to a stand. These flasks are mostly borosilicate – so that they can withstand higher temperatures for longer periods of time. Glass is a chemically inert substance.
Spherical flask (round bottom) advantages
- less likely to crack when heating
- uniform distribution of heat
- more surface area for heat distribution
#32 Flat bottom flask
Flat bottom flasks are used for storing chemicals. It is not used for heating mixtures. The flat bottom can be kept standalone on a table without any clamps. Glass is chemically inert.
Flat bottom flash vs Round bottom flask differences
#33 Swan neck flask
Swan neck flask has a special tubing attached to it. It is also known as gooseneck flask.
Function of swan neck
Swan neck reduces air motion inside the flask. Contaminants like dust and bacteria from outside are less likely to contaminate the solution inside. Moisture in the open end of thin swan neck can trap bacteria.
Louis Pasteur – Swan neck flask experiment
- In 1859 Louis Pasteur did experiments about fermentation using the swan neck flask. (Gooseneck bottle / Bottle en col de cygne)
- Before 1859, scientists believed that air itself and the solutions led to fermentation (Spontaneous generation)
- Pasteur proved that germs in the air led to fermentation. (Germ theory)
- These experiments were done using the swan neck flasks.
#34 Evaporating dish
Evaporating dish / Evaporating basin is made of either borosilicate glass or porcelain. It is a laboratory equipment used for evaporation of solutions.
Evaporating dish vs crucible differences
- Evaporating dish is larger compare to the crucible
- Crucible can withstand higher temperatures compared to evaporating dish
- Evaporating dish is ideal for heating small amounts of solutions, crucible is ideal for melting metals or solids that need very high temperatures.
What is the name given to the solid left on the evaporating dish after heating?
Why should the mass of the evaporating dish be measured immediately after it cools (without doing it later)?
You need to measure the weight of the anhydrous chemical. With time it can absorb water and provide a false reading.
Which feature of the evaporating dish makes it efficient in evaporation?
higher surface area
Why it is bad to stir while heating in an evaporating dish?
higher risk of spilling
Why Porcelain is used to make evaporating dish?
- Porcelain can withstand higher temperatures
- Porcelain usually does not react with other chemicals
#35 Clay triangle
Three pieces of fire clay are connected to each other by a metal wire to form a triangle. It is used to hold the crucible when heating with a Bunsen burner.
Pipeclay triangle uses
- hold the crucible
- hold evaporating dishes when heating
#36 Petri dish
Petri dish is a shallow cylindrical container with a lid. This can contain a specific culture medium to grow bacteria or fungi. This is used as a culture plate.
Why Petri dish has that name?
It is named after the famous German bacteriologist Julius Richard Petri.
What can you grow in a Petri dish?
Size of a Petri dish
There are different sizes – the common size is 10 cm diameter Petri dish
#37 Inoculating loop
Inoculation loop / smear loop is a small metal loop with a handle used in microbiology. This is used for transferring microorganisms on culture medium – known as inoculation.
When using for inoculation the loop is sterilized by a flame of a gas burner.
Material used in inoculating loop
Platinum or nichrome
Reason for using Platinum or Nichrome in inoculation loop
These metals can withstand multiple heating and cooling cycles
#38 Watch glass
A concave glass or plastic equipment used in the lab that resembles the watch glass in the clock.
Uses of watch glass
- Measure and hold small amounts of solids
- For evaporation of volatile mixtures
- For heating small amount of chemicals
#39 Wash bottle
Wash bottles are used for providing liquids in a small and accurate amount. It is basically a squeeze bottle with a nozzle. It can be used for washing away small amount of chemicals in a watch glass or residue in a test tube.
Wash bottle made of
They are made of low-density polyethylene
Funnels either plastic or glass are lab equipment made for transporting liquids or small solids from one container to the other. Having a funnel coms handy, when you are working with mixture solutions. Funnels are mounted onto narrow necked flasks.
Funnel in the lab
Funnels can be diverse in size. Transporting fine powders or liquids from one glassware to the other is done with a funnel. Also funnel is used for holding a filter paper when filtering a mixture.
#41 Graduated cylinder and measuring cylinder
A graduated cylinder is commonly used to measure the volume of a liquid. It also known as a measuring cylinder or mixing cylinder. It is represented the amount of the liquid by the marked scale on the cylinder. The narrow cylindrical shape is useful to pour and transfer the liquids. Most of graduated cylinders and measuring cylinders are made up of heat resistant borosilicate glass. It consists of wide rim and tapered pouring spout.
How to determine the value of the graduations on the cylinder?
When you put a liquid into the measuring cylinder, you will notice a curved surface ( meniscus) at the top, as indicated in the image, which is the right way of measuring volume. Determine the lowest curved point’s reading.
Droppers are devices for measuring and transferring minute volumes of liquid. They are made out of a long plastic or glass tube with a hole at the end and a top rubber bulb. You push out the required liquid by pressing this rubber bulb.
How to handle a dropper?
The air is sucked out of the dropper when the rubber top is pressed. The low pressure inside sucks up the liquid when you insert the tip into the liquid and stopped pressing the top. Because, the increased pressure in the liquid outside the dropper pulls the liquid up into the dropper.
A pipette is a laboratory tool used to transmit a measured volume of liquid, generally as a media dispenser. It is commonly used in chemistry, biology, and medicine field.
Pipettes are available in a variety types of designs for a variety of uses, with varying degrees of accuracy and precision.
Types of Pipettes
- Volumetric Pipettes – Volumetric pipettes transmit a single volume of liquid at a time. It is used to transferred predetermined volume of liquid. It is consisted of bulb at the top. Therefore it is called the bulb pipette.
- Measuring Pipettes – Measuring pipettes are calibrated with small divides and are frequently adjustable, allowing users to draw up the exact amount of liquid required.
- Micropipettes – Micropipettes are accurate instruments that can transmit measured volumes of microliters.
- Pasteur Pipette – They are similar to eye droppers in that they may transmit a little amount of liquid. They are constructed of glass or plastic, feature a separate bulb, and do not have a calibrated volume.
A burette is a graduated glass tube used to dispense small quantities of liquid. The flow of the liquid is controlled by a tap with a valve (stopcock, turning plug, or spigot) in the long glass tube. The glass tube is calibrated by a scale to measure the volume of the liquid.
What is the purpose of a burette?
Burettes are used to determine the volume of a liquid or gas in quantitative chemical analysis.
What is the purpose of a burette in titration?
Burettes are recommended for titration because they can dispense accurate amounts of liquid and hold a sufficient number of reagents for titration.
Different Types of Burettes
The volumetric burette and the piston burette are the two main types of burettes. The flowing burettes are commonly used in titration
- Manual / Volumetric Burettes
- Digital Burettes
- Electronic or E-Burettes
Spatulas are used in transferring or scraping samples or chemicals from their original containers to other containers such as bottles, weighing paper, funnels, or weighing instruments.
Laboratory spatulas are often made of plastic or metals according to their uses. They are longer and thinner, having a one end or two ends with spoon like scoops or flat surface.
Types of spatulas
Regular spatulas and micro spatulas are the two types of spatulas.
Scoopula is a long, scoop-shaped metal object. They are used to transfer solids to a weighing paper for weighing, to watch glass, and also for scraping. It can retain more solid than spatulas therefore it can be used for transferring bigger amounts of chemicals.
#47 Bunsen burner
Bunsen burner is used for heating, combustion, and sterilization. It is mostly used in experiments due to its smokeless, non-luminous, hot flame. It is safe heating equipment because of its structure. The flame is formed by mixing gas and oxygen in a supervised condition. At the bottom of the chimney, natural gas (methane) or liquefied petroleum gas (propane or butane) is provided and connected to a gas valve through a rubber tube.
Who discovered Bunsen burner?
The burner is named after German scientist Robert Bunsen, who invented it in 1857.
Parts of a Bunsen burner
The Bunsen burner is made up of a flat base, a vertically extending metal tube known as a barrel or chimney, collar, air holes, gas intake, and gas valve.
Main types of Bunsen burner flames
There are three main types of Bunsen burner flames.
Blue Flame – can produce when the air hole is partially open. it reaches around 500 degrees.
Roaring Blue Flame – The hottest zone. Produced when the air hole is fully open, and it can reach temperatures of 700 degrees.
#48 Spirit lamp
A Spirit lamp is a heating instrument that is used in the laboratory and made with glass or metals such as steel or aluminium and brass. It is also used for sterilization and combustion in different experiments.
What kind of spirit is used in a spirit lamp?
The flame can get from the combustion of ethyl alcohol and it produces an open flame with yellow color. The flame gives a lower temperature than the Bunsen burner’s gas flame. The flame should be reduced by covering its lid.
#49 Tripod and Gauze
The laboratory tripod consists of three legs with a triangular top. The whole structure is made up of stainless steel or aluminium. The main use of the tripod is supporting beakers and flasks.
To provide a flat surface for glassware, wire gauze is often put on top of the tripod. Tripods are often tall enough to fit a burner below.
#50 pH papers
These, like the litmus papers, are available in the laboratory in the form of booklets or rolls. These were made by combining different indications. The pH value can be determined visually by dipping a pH paper in the required solution and comparing the paper’s color to the color code. As a result, the solution’s acidity, basicity, or neutrality can be determined. Furthermore, it indicates the strength of the acid or base. It helps to identify the strong or weak acids and bases.
Acidic compounds exhibit a spectrum of 1-6 colors.
Bases or basic compounds appear in a spectrum of 8-14 colors.
The pH paper’s color of 7 indicates neutral chemicals.
#51 Litmus Papers
Litmus papers are used in the identification of acids and bases as indicators. They are in two forms, blue and red litmus. Blue litmus is used to identify acidic solutions and red litmus for identifying basic solutions.
Litmus paper – color change
When red litmus paper is immersed in a basic solution it turns its color into the blue. Whereas the blue litmus in acidic solution gives red color.
Litmus papers are not suitable for identifying the strength of the acid or base.
#52 Cobalt chloride papers
Anhydrous Cobalt chloride papers are in blue color which is used to identify the presence of water. In water, it turns its blue color into pink
This technique can simply assess a plant’s rate of transpiration. To conduct the experiment, blue dry cobalt chloride paper is used, which becomes pink when exposed to water, and the rate of transpiration is assessed by the time it takes for the paper to change color from pink to blue.
#53 Filter papers
Filter papers are used for separating fine solid particles from liquids (or gases). They are semi-permeable papers and placed perpendicular to the solution needed to filter. It should be placed on a funnel by folding. This pattern of folds in the filter paper allows the liquid to travel through it fast while providing a large surface area for collecting the solid impurity.
Type of filter papers used in laboratory
Filter papers are made up of natural cellulose or quarts fibers. Filter papers made of cellulose are the most often used filters in laboratories for a wide range of applications.