Fluorine is a chemical element with the symbol F and atomic number 9. It is the lightest halogen and is a highly reactive non-metal. Below is an overview of the chemical and physical properties of fluorine, its valency, electronic configuration, uses, reactions with other elements, and industrial and medical applications.
Chemical Properties of Fluorine:
Fluorine is the most electronegative element and has a tendency to gain electrons, making it a strong oxidizing agent.
It reacts vigorously with most elements, especially metals, to form fluorides.
It can react with water to form hydrofluoric acid, a highly corrosive and toxic substance.
Fluorine gas is very reactive and must be handled with extreme caution.
Physical Properties of Fluorine:
Fluorine is a pale yellow gas at room temperature and pressure.
It has a boiling point of -188.1 °C and a melting point of -219.6 °C.
It is much more soluble in water as well as polar solvents.
It is a non-metal and is not ductile or malleable.
Valency of Fluorine:
Fluorine has a valency of 1, meaning it can form a single bond with other elements.
It can also form double or triple bonds in certain compounds.
Electronic Configuration of Fluorine:
Fluorine has electron configuration of [He] 2s2 2p5.
It has seven valence electrons and is one electron short of a full octet.
Uses of Fluorine:
Fluorine is used to produce a variety of fluorine compounds, including hydrofluoric acid, sodium fluoride, and fluorocarbons.
It is used in the production of uranium for nuclear reactors and in the refining of aluminum.
Fluorine compounds are used as refrigerants, propellants, and solvents.
Reactions of Fluorine with Other Elements:
Fluorine reacts with metals to form metal fluorides.
It reacts with hydrogen to form hydrogen fluoride.
It can replace other halogens in compounds, such as chlorine or iodine.
Chemical and Physical Properties of Fluorine in a table
|Electron Configuration||[He] 2s2 2p5|
|Boiling Point||-188.1 °C|
|Melting Point||-219.6 °C|
|Density||1.696 g/L at STP|
|Reactivity||Highly reactive, strong oxidizing agent|
|Solubility||Highly soluble in water and polar solvents|