Ammonia gas (NH3) is a colorless, pungent-smelling gas that is commonly used in industrial and agricultural applications. Here’s some information about its physical and chemical properties, uses, reactions with other compounds, and how it is produced:
Physical Properties of Ammonia Gas:
- Molecular formula: NH3
- Molecular weight: 17.03 g/mol
- Density: 0.771 kg/m3
- Boiling point: -33.34 °C (-28.01 °F)
- Melting point: -77.73 °C (-107.91 °F)
- Solubility: highly soluble in water
- Odor: pungent, irritating odor
Chemical Properties of Ammonia Gas:
- Ammonia is a basic compound that can act as a nucleophile in chemical reactions.
- It reacts with acids to make ammonium salts.
- It can also react with oxidizing agents to form nitrogen gas and water.
- Ammonia can undergo combustion to produce nitrogen gas and water vapor.
Uses of Ammonia Gas:
Ammonia is primarily used in the production of fertilizers, where it is converted to ammonium nitrate or urea.
It is also used in the production of nylon, rayon, and other synthetic fibers.
Ammonia is used as a refrigerant and a cleaning agent.
In the form of ammonium hydroxide, it is used in household cleaning products.
Reactions of Ammonia Gas with Other Compounds:
NH3 + HCl → NH4Cl
4NH3 + 5O2 → 4NO + 6H2O
4NH3 + 3O2 → 2N2 + 6H2O
How to Produce Ammonia Gas:
Ammonia is primarily produced through the Haber process, which involves the reaction of nitrogen gas and hydrogen gas in the presence of a catalyst at high temperature and pressure:
N2 + 3H2 → 2NH3
Ammonia can also be produced by the reaction of nitric oxide and hydrogen gas:
2NO + 2H2 → N2 + 2H2O, followed by the reaction of nitric oxide with excess hydrogen gas:
4NO + 4H2 → 2NH3 + 2H2O