Nitrogen is a chemical element – Its symbol is N and atomic number is 7. It is a non-metal and is the most abundant element in the Earth’s atmosphere.
Chemical Properties of Nitrogen:
Nitrogen is relatively unreactive under normal conditions and does not form compounds easily.
It can form nitrogen oxides when exposed to high temperatures, such as in combustion reactions.
It is a vital component of many biological molecules, including proteins and nucleic acids.
Physical Properties of Nitrogen:
Nitrogen is a colorless, odorless gas at room temperature and pressure.
It has a boiling point of -195.8 °C and a melting point of -210.1 °C.
It is slightly soluble in water and other polar solvents.
It is a non-metal and is not ductile or malleable.
Valency of Nitrogen:
Nitrogen has a valency of 3 or 5, meaning it can form three or five bonds with other elements.
It typically forms covalent bonds with other non-metals.
Electronic Configuration of Nitrogen:
Nitrogen – electron configuration is [He] 2s2 2p3.
It has five valence electrons and is three electrons short of a full octet.
Uses of Nitrogen:
Nitrogen gas is used in the food industry to prevent spoilage and extend shelf life.
It is used in the production of ammonia for fertilizers, as well as in the production of other chemicals, such as nitric acid.
Nitrogen is used in the production of electronics and as a coolant in some industrial processes.
Reactions of Nitrogen with Other Elements:
Nitrogen can react with oxygen to form nitrogen oxides, which are pollutants.
It can also react with hydrogen to form ammonia, a critical component in the production of fertilizers.
Nitrogen can react with some metals, such as lithium or magnesium, to form nitrides.
Balanced equations for Reactions of Nitrogen with Other Elements
Nitrogen + Hydrogen -> Ammonia
N2 + 3 H2 -> 2 NH3
Nitrogen + Oxygen -> Nitrogen Oxides
2 N2 + O2 -> 2 NO or N2 + 2 O2 -> 2 NO2 (depending on conditions)
Nitrogen + Chlorine -> Nitrogen Trichloride
N2 + 3 Cl2 -> 2 NCl3
Nitrogen + Carbon -> Cyanogen
C + 2 N2 -> (CN)2
Nitrogen + Calcium -> Calcium Cyanamide
Ca + N2 -> CaCN2
Nitrogen + Lithium -> Lithium Nitride
6 Li + N2 -> 2 Li3N
Industrial Uses of Nitrogen:
Nitrogen is used in the production of fertilizers and other chemicals, such as nitric acid.
It is used in the food industry to preserve food and prevent spoilage.
Nitrogen gas is used as a coolant in some industrial processes and in electronics manufacturing.
Chemical and Physical Properties of Nitrogen in a table
|Valency||3 or 5|
|Electron Configuration||[He] 2s2 2p3|
|Boiling Point||-195.8 °C|
|Melting Point||-210.1 °C|
|Density||1.2506 g/L at STP|
|Reactivity||Relatively unreactive under normal conditions|
|Solubility||Slightly soluble in water and polar solvents|