What is an argumentative essay and how to write it?

An argumentative essay is a sort of academic writing used in science. Here you provide arguments from opposing viewpoints on a certain topic. The author has the freedom to either weigh both sides of the argument equally, or else to select one side of the opinion and try to prove it than its counterpart.

In argumentative essay, you include arguments to convince readers of your point of view. As in all other essay types, a scientific essay also has an introduction, main body and conclusion. The introduction should be short and it must include a clear thesis statement.

The ability to persuade, whether in speech or through writing, is an essential quality that you should strive to develop as a student. A persuasive essay focuses on convincing readers about a certain issue, usually something that you believe in personally.

An argumentative essay is somewhat similar to a persuasive essay, except the goal is to get your readers to question the validity of a particular opinion or belief rather than persuade them to agree with your position.

What is an argumentative essay?

Argumentative essays are assignments that require students to write a paper on a topic they have chosen. It is usually based on the student’s opinion and the evidence that he or she can provide to prove his or her point.

Writing an argumentative essay is not an easy task for most students, especially for those who do not have enough experience and knowledge in academic writing. Some students may even think that writing a scientific argumentative essay is as simple as composing a piece of text about something that you are interested in. However, this is not true because it is impossible to write anything interesting without doing a thorough research.

Book Glasses Education Eyeglasses  - armennano / Pixabay
armennano / Pixabay

In this article, we will give you detailed guidelines on how to write a scientific argumentative essay in the easiest way possible.

If you are having trouble finding good science argumentative essay topics, don’t panic. Here are some tips and ideas that can help you choose a winning topic for an argumentative essay about science.

Parts of a an argumentative essay

When you write an argumentative essay, you need to show that your view on the subject is more legitimate than others. The main purpose of the argumentative essay is to give evidence that supports the idea stated in the thesis statement.

Every argumentative essay has some main parts to the body section of the paper. An unbiased argument, the clear perspective on the subject matter, proof as well as counter arguments are the essential parts that need to be included in the writing.

A formal argumentative essay is not the same as an opinion piece. It’s important to understand the differences before you start working on your assignment.

The main objective of an argumentative essay is to teach students to make statements and find reliable arguments to support them. In other words, the final aim of persuasive writing is to convince readers that the position a certain point of view is the right one.

The five parts of an argumentative essay include;

  • Introduction
    • Briefly explain the topic
    • Motivate the reader to stay till the end
    • State why your topic is worth reading for science learners
  • Body paragraphs
    • This needs to be 3 to 5 body paragraphs
    • Use subheadings if appropriate
    • Weigh both sides of the argument equally
    • Include evidence and other arguments in the content
  • Evidence and Counterarguments
    • This is included in body paragraphs
    • Depend on solid and reliable evidence rather than opinions
    • If you wish to prove your side of the topic have concrete evidence from credible sources
  • Conclusion or call to action
    • This part should be small but precise to the topic
    • Try to convince the importance of your arguments as well as your core opinion
  • References
    • List all your references from trustworthy sources

Writing an argumentative science essay

An argumentative essay is a type of writing that requires a student to investigate the topic, collect and generate evidence, evaluate the evidence and then present their stance on the issue in a concise manner. As the name suggests, this type of essay requires the writer to take a stance on their given topic and defend it using evidence from credible sources. When choosing your topic for this sort of essay, you should consider a few things.

Tea Time Reading Poetry Leisure  - ThoughtCatalog / Pixabay
ThoughtCatalog / Pixabay

This is an excellent way to persuade anyone of a particular topic or point of view. Using research-based content for proving both sides of an argument makes this a piece of art as well.

The first thing to think about is your audience. Who will be reading your paper? What do they know about your subject? Will they be attracted to reading your paper?

Next, think about what you already know about your subject. Do you have enough background knowledge to write on this topic? Or do you need more research time?

Once you’ve answered these questions, it’s time to get writing!

15 best topics for science argumentative essays

  1. Should the authorities be more active in Climate crisis?
  2. Should vaccination have made compulsory?
  3. How safe if clinical trials on animals?
  4. Will human hibernation be a success?
  5. Should the world spend more on exploring the universe?
  6. Living on Moon. Will it be possible?
  7. Will artificial intelligence take over human jobs?
  8. Negative and positive effects of lockdown during a pandemic
  9. Does science contribute to distress or wellbeing of the mankind?
  10. Is the scientific knowledge necessary for human survival?
  11. Should nuclear sciences be experimented further?
  12. Do video games influence aggressive behavior?
  13. How did life occur on earth?
  14. Is solar energy effective than other forms of renewable energy?
  15. Should the world stop making hydrocarbon-based vehicles?

How to Write a Good Argumentative Essay

An argumentative essay is a type of writing that presents a clear thesis statement and supporting evidence in order to persuade the reader to accept the writer’s point of view on a particular issue. The purpose of this type of writing is to persuade the reader to accept the writer’s point of view on a particular issue. If you want to be successful in writing an argumentative essay, there are a few things you should keep in mind at all times:

1. Select a subject that you have a significant emotional investment in and are enthusiastic about. This will make it much simpler for you to construct an argument that is compelling and well-supported in writing.

2. Conduct extensive research on the subject. Find information from reliable sources, and compile proof, to back up the claims you make in your case.

3. Formulate a statement that will serve as your thesis. This is a remark that eloquently conveys the most important part of your argument or perspective on the matter at hand.

4. Plan your essay. Create a draft that includes your primary points as well as the evidence that will be used to support each of those points.

5. Begin composing your introductory paragraph. First, establish your issue, and then provide a statement of your thesis after the attention-grabbing hook you used in the introduction.

6. Compose the body paragraphs of your paper. Each paragraph of your essay needs to concentrate on a single primary issue and provide evidence to back up the claim you’re making.

7. Write your conclusion. Restate your key premise and briefly summarize your important points. Finish with a question that will make the reader think or a call to action.

8. Proofread and edit your previously written essay. Make sure that your essay is well-organized, that it has no errors, and that it provides an argument that is understandable and convincing.

It is important to always remember to respect and consider the perspectives of others, even if you disagree with those perspectives.

3 Main Types of Arguments

There are three main types of arguments that are commonly used in argumentative writing:

  1. Ethical arguments: These arguments appeal to the reader’s sense of morality or fairness. They are often used to argue for or against a particular action or policy based on its ethical implications.
  2. Logical arguments: These arguments use logical reasoning and evidence to support a conclusion. They rely on cause-and-effect relationships and use logical deductions to arrive at a conclusion.
  3. Emotional arguments: These arguments appeal to the reader’s emotions and use emotional language and anecdotes to persuade the reader to accept the writer’s perspective.

It is important to note that a good argumentative essay may use a combination of these types of arguments in order to effectively persuade the reader. However, it is important to use each type of argument appropriately and not rely too heavily on any one type.

Compare Aristotelian, Rogerian and Toulmin styles

Aristotelian, Rogerian, and Toulmin are all approaches to argumentation, or the process of constructing and presenting a persuasive argument. Here is a comparison of these three approaches:

Aristotelian: The Aristotelian approach, also known as the classical approach, is based on the works of the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle. It is a structured approach that focuses on logical reasoning and the use of evidence to support a claim. In this approach, the writer presents a clear thesis statement and then provides evidence and reasoning to support it.

Rogerian: The Rogerian approach, developed by psychologist Carl Rogers, is a non-adversarial approach that seeks to find common ground between opposing viewpoints. It emphasizes the importance of listening and understanding the perspective of others in order to find a mutually-beneficial solution to a problem. In this approach, the writer presents both sides of the argument and then offers a compromise or a solution that takes into account the needs and concerns of both sides.

Toulmin: The Toulmin approach, developed by philosopher Stephen Toulmin, is a flexible approach that focuses on the use of evidence and logic to support a claim. It emphasizes the importance of analyzing and evaluating the reasoning behind an argument and considering the context in which the argument is made. In this approach, the writer presents a clear claim and then uses evidence and reasoning to support it, while also acknowledging and addressing counterarguments and objections.

Overall, each of these approaches has its own strengths and can be useful in different situations. It is important to choose the approach that best fits the topic and the audience for your argumentative essay.

Here is a lesson plan for teaching science argumentative essays:

1. Explain what argumentative writing is and why it’s done. The goal of argumentative writing is to present a clear and well-supported argument to convince the reader to agree with the writer’s point of view on a certain issue.

2. Introduce the topic of the argumentative essay. This could be a current event or issue in science, like climate change, GMOs, or the use of animals in research.

3. Have students come up with a list of what’s good and bad about the topic. This will get them thinking about different points of view and evidence they could use to back up their case.

4. Next, talk about the Aristotelian way of making an argument, which is based on logical reasoning and using proof to back up a claim. Students should come up with a list of possible thesis statements for their argumentative essay and then choose one to work on.

5. Have the students do research on the topic they chose and collect evidence to back up their argument. Tell them to use sources they can trust, like scientific journals, government reports, and the opinions of experts.

6. Have students plan their essay by making an outline of their main points and the evidence they will use to support each point.

7. Have students write a rough draft of their argumentative essay, including an introduction with a clear thesis statement, body paragraphs that present and support their main points, and a conclusion which summarizes their main facts and restates their thesis.

8. Have students revise and edit their essays, paying close attention to how they are organized, how clear they are, and how they use evidence to back up their arguments.

9. Finally, have each student either read or write out loud their argumentative essay to the class. Encourage the class to debate and talk about the different points of view in a respectful way.


The argumentative essay can be classified as a composition which compels a person to investigate a given topic, accumulate information, generate and evaluate evidence, in a bid to establish a position on the matter in a concise manner.

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An argumentative essay should end with a concise review of the key components of the essay and restate your thesis or claim. The last part should also include your position regarding the issue discussed in your essay.

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About Author

Anuradhika Lakmali

Anuradhika Lakmali is a co-founder of Science A Plus learning network. She is working as a government teacher and has interest in chemistry, biology, phisics and self development.