Physical properties of carbon dioxide:
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colorless gas at room temperature.
It is slightly acidic, and can form weak carbonic acid (H2CO3) when dissolved in water.
Carbon dioxide is odorless, tasteless, and non-flammable.
The boiling point of carbon dioxide is -78.5°C (-109.3°F) and the melting point is -56.6°C (-69.8°F).
It is denser than air and can accumulate in low-lying areas, which can pose a hazard to human health.
Chemical properties of carbon dioxide:
Carbon dioxide is a stable compound that does not readily undergo chemical reactions under normal conditions.
It is a non-toxic gas and does not support combustion or sustain life.
However, it can react with strong bases to form bicarbonates or carbonates, which are more reactive compounds.
Carbon dioxide can also participate in reactions that involve reduction or oxidation, such as in the production of methanol.
Uses of carbon dioxide:
Carbon dioxide is used in the production of carbonated beverages, such as soda and beer, to give them their characteristic fizz.
It is also used in the production of dry ice, which is used for refrigeration and in the transportation of food and other perishable items.
Carbon dioxide is used in some industrial processes, such as in the production of urea and in the extraction of metals.
Reactions of carbon dioxide with other compounds:
Carbon dioxide can react with water to form carbonic acid, which can further react with bases to form bicarbonates or carbonates.
It can react with some metals to form metal carbonates.
Carbon dioxide can also participate in reactions that involve reduction or oxidation, such as in the production of methanol or in the combustion of fossil fuels.
How to produce Carbon dioxide gas:
Carbon dioxide gas can be produced through several processes. One common method is by burning fossil fuels or biomass, which releases carbon dioxide as a byproduct. Carbon dioxide can also be produced through the fermentation of sugars by yeast or bacteria, such as in the production of beer or wine.
Equations for producing carbon dioxide gas
Reaction of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) with vinegar (acetic acid):
NaHCO3 + CH3COOH -> CO2 + H2O + NaCH3COO
Combustion of any carbon-containing material such as wood, coal, or hydrocarbons:
C + O2 -> CO2
Reaction between calcium carbonate (marble chips) and hydrochloric acid:
CaCO3 + 2HCl -> CO2 + H2O + CaCl2
Reaction of sodium carbonate (washing soda) with hydrochloric acid:
Na2CO3 + 2HCl -> 2NaCl + H2O + CO2
Fermentation of sugar by yeast:
C6H12O6 -> 2CO2 + 2C2H5OH