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Differences between Physical changes and chemical changes

Physical changes involve changes to a substance’s physical properties, such as its size, shape, or state of matter, without any change to its chemical makeup. Some examples of physical changes include:

  • Cutting or tearing a piece of paper
  • Crushing a can
  • Melting or freezing a substance
  • Changing the shape of a solid object through bending or stretching
  • Changing the state of matter of a substance from solid to liquid or gas, or vice versa

However, when a substance undergoes a chemical change, its very chemical composition alters. This means that new substances are formed as a result of the chemical change. Some examples of chemical changes include:

  • Burning a substance
  • Rusting of metal
  • Decomposition of organic matter
  • Digestion of food in the body
  • Formation of a new compound through a chemical reaction

One way to distinguish between physical and chemical changes is to consider whether the substances before and after the change are chemically the same. If they are, it is likely a physical change. If they are different, it is likely a chemical change.

Differences between Pure substances and non-Pure substances

A pure substance is a chemical substance that is made up of a single type of molecule or atom. It is composed of only one type of particle, and it does not contain any other substances or impurities. Either elements or compounds can be pure substances. Examples of pure substances include pure water, pure gold, pure oxygen, and pure salt.

On the other hand, a non-pure substance is a substance that is not made up of a single type of molecule or atom. It is composed of more than one type of particle, and it may contain impurities. Non-pure substances are also known as mixtures. Examples of non-pure substances include air, salt water, and soil. Mixtures can be either homogeneous or heterogeneous. Homogeneous mixtures are uniform in composition, while heterogeneous mixtures are not uniform in composition.

Differences between elements and compound

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An element is a type of pure substance that is made up of a single type of atom and cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means. Examples of elements include hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, and gold.

A compound is a type of substance made up of two or more elements chemically combined in fixed proportions. Chemical reactions can break compounds down into the parts that make them up. Water (H2O), salt (NaCl), and methane are all examples of compounds (CH4).

In general, elements are the building blocks of matter, while compounds are formed by combining elements in specific ratios.

Differences between solid and liquid

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Solids and liquids are two of the three main states of matter, with the third being gases. The main difference between solids and liquids is the way in which their particles are arranged and how much they can move around.


Have a fixed shape and volume. The particles in a solid are tightly packed together and do not have much room to move around. This is why solids hold their shape and do not flow like liquids.

Have a fixed density. The particles in a solid are close together, which gives the solid a fixed density.

Are hard and have a definite shape. The particles in a solid are held together by strong forces, which makes the solid hard and gives it a definite shape.


Have a fixed volume but take the shape of their container. The particles in a liquid are more spread out than in a solid, and they can move around more freely. Liquids can flow and take the shape of their container because of this.

Have a fixed density. Like solids, liquids have a fixed density because the particles are close together. However, the density of a liquid can change slightly depending on temperature and pressure.

The particles in a liquid are not held together as tightly as in a solid, so liquids are able to flow and take the shape of their container.

There are also some other differences between solids and liquids. For example, solids generally have a higher melting point and boiling point than liquids. Solids also tend to be more rigid and less compressible than liquids.

Differences between Homo-atomic molecules and hetero-atomic molecules

Based on their composition, homo-atomic molecules and hetero-atomic molecules are two types of molecules.

Homo-atomic molecules are made up of atoms of the same element and are usually simple in nature, such as O2 (Oxygen).

Hetero-atomic molecules are made up of atoms from different elements and are typically more complicated in composition, such as H2O. (Water).

The primary distinction between these two types of molecules is their composition, which results in distinct physical and chemical properties as well as molecular structures.

Differences between homogeneous mixtures and heterogeneous mixtures

Homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures are two categories of mixtures depending on their composition and component distribution.

Homogeneous mixtures have components that are evenly distributed and have a homogeneous composition throughout, such as sugar dissolved in water. These mixtures appear to have a single phase and to be the same throughout.

Heterogeneous mixtures, such as a salad made up of various vegetables and fruits, are those in which the components are not equally distributed and have different compositions in different places. These mixtures have many phases and the components can be physically separated.

The primary distinction between these two types of mixtures is the distribution and homogeneity of the components, which results in changes in physical and chemical properties and behavior.

Differences between Evaporation and Vaporization

The process of converting a liquid to a gaseous state is known as vaporization. There are two methods for liquid to become gaseous. One is the boiling that occurs at the boiling point of a liquid when additional heat is applied. The other method is to gradually convert the liquid into a gas at temperatures below the boiling point. Evaporation is the conversion of a liquid at a temperature lower than its boiling point.

Latent heat is absorbed during vaporization as a result of either the boiling or evaporation processes. In most cases, evaporation occurs only at the surface of a liquid that is exposed to air. However, while boiling, evaporation occurs even below the liquid’s surface. Bubbles arise in a boiling liquid because of this.

Differences between rocks and minerals

Minerals and rocks are two distinct naturally occurring substances, each with its own set of features and characteristics.

Minerals are inorganic compounds that exist naturally. Have a distinct chemical make-up.

Structure crystalline. Quartz, feldspar, mica, and calcite are some examples.

Rocks are mineral aggregates of one or more minerals. Can be composed of a single mineral or a combination of minerals. Formed by geological processes such as crystallization, precipitation, or sediment buildup and compression. Granite, basalt, sandstone, and limestone are among examples.

Differences between Metals and non-metals

Metals and nonmetals are two main types of elements with distinct properties.

Physical Properties: Metals are normally solid at room temperature, have high melting and boiling temperatures, and are good heat and electrical conductors. Nonmetals are often gaseous or brittle solids at room temperature, with low melting and boiling temperatures and poor heat and electrical conductivity.

Chemical Properties: Metals are reactive, rapidly losing electrons to generate positive ions, whereas nonmetals are unreactive, readily gaining electrons to form negative ions.

Density: Metals are normally denser than nonmetals, with the exception of hydrogen.

Electronegativity: Nonmetals have higher electronegativities than metals, which means they have a larger ability to attract electrons.

Conductivity: Metals conduct electricity and heat well, whereas nonmetals conduct poorly.

Appearance: Metals have a gleaming aspect, but nonmetals are often dull or opaque.

Examples: Aluminum, iron, copper, and gold are examples of common metals, while hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen are examples of common nonmetals.

Position in the periodic table: The elements in the periodic table are typically classified as metals or nonmetals based on their position in the chart. Elements on the left and center of the table are commonly classified as metals, while those on the right are classified as non-metals.

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