The night sky has a plethora of celestial objects that may be examined. People have been fascinated by heavenly objects since antiquity. They obtained knowledge from those items by observing them.
Ancient humans used their own eyes to examine heavenly objects. Various tools were afterward utilized for this purpose. Some examples include telescopes, manned and unmanned spacecraft, and space stations.
We now have the ability to grasp the solar system, which is a huge system that includes the Earth, thanks to knowledge gathered since ancient times. Still, research is being conducted in this area.
The atmosphere is the air blanket that surrounds the Earth. The atmosphere reaches up to 500 kilometers above the earth’s surface. However, after around 100 kilometers, it gets quite thin. The phrase “space” refers to the area that begins roughly 100 kilometers from the Earth.
Man has been exploring space since prehistoric times. However, the bounds of space, what it includes, and how much it contains such things are issues to which man has yet to discover definitive solutions. The goal of science is to find solutions to these kinds of problems.
Usage of rockets
Initially, air balloons were used to reach higher heights of the atmosphere. The man later realized that the only way to reach outer space was to use rockets. Russian Tsiolkovsky and American Goddard were the first to work on rockets.
The first liquid-fueled rocket was launched in early 1926.
The most basic rocket consists of a combustion chamber, a fuel tank, and an igniter tank.
The combustion chamber is filled with a well-mixed mixture of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen (as fuel) and petrol (as an igniter).
Gases created by combustion were rapidly forced down through the nozzle, providing an upward thrust to the rocket. This causes the rocket to shoot into the sky.
NASA was established in 1958 to carry out America’s space investigations and to conduct programs.
Satellites are celestial bodies smaller than the moon that orbits the Earth.
An artificial satellite is a rocket-launched spacecraft that revolves around the Earth. On October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union launched the first artificial satellite, Sputnik-1. With this momentous accomplishment, humanity entered the space age.
A satellite is a star-like entity that moves through the stars.
Sir Arther C. Clerke proposed a novel method of satellite communication.
He stated that if a satellite orbits the earth at the same speed as the rotation of the globe and at a given height, it will be viewed stationary from the ground.
A spacecraft of this type is known as a geostationary satellite. Sir Arther C. Clerke stated that if three of these satellites are orbiting the Earth, the entire globe may be covered with communication capabilities.
On July 10, 1962, the world’s first commercial communication satellite was launched.
The Telstar-1 was the name. Thousands of communication satellites orbit the Earth now, providing telephone, television, and internet services.
The planet is now being transformed into a “global village” by geostationary satellites in orbit.
Hubble space telescope
The ‘Hubble’ space telescope was launched in order to examine celestial bodies that are difficult to see from Earth.
The Hubble Space Telescope, named after the pioneering astronomer Edwin Hubble, is a massive, space-based observatory that has revolutionized astronomy since its launch and deployment by the space shuttle Discovery in 1990. Hubble has a clean perspective of the cosmos from far above rain clouds, light pollution, and atmospheric aberrations. Hubble has been used by scientists to examine some of the most distant stars and galaxies ever observed, as well as planets in our solar system.
Telescopes can detect a certain wavelength of light. Hubble’s domain spans the ultraviolet, visible (what human eyes perceive), and near-infrared spectrums. This range has enabled Hubble to produce breathtaking photos of stars, galaxies, and other celestial objects, which have inspired people all across the globe and altered our knowledge of the cosmos.
At NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, a team of engineers, scientists, and operators monitor Hubble’s orbit around the Earth, direct the telescope at cosmic objects, and troubleshoot any issues that emerge.
International Space Station
Previously, Russia and the United States established independent space stations. However, both of the aforementioned countries, along with a few other countries, currently jointly operate the International Space Station.
The space station will be operational until at least 2024, with the partners considering the possibility of extending the mission until 2028.
The Space Station travels at a height of 248 miles (400 kilometers) above Earth on average. It travels around the world every 90 minutes at a speed of around 17,500 mph (28,000 km/h).
The ISS usually has an international crew of seven individuals who live and work there. However, because of crew member turnover, this number might change; for example, in 2009, 13 crew members visited the ISS. This is also the record for the greatest number of individuals in space at the same moment.
Space crafts landed on Mars
As of May 2021, there are three operating rovers on the surface of Mars: The Curiosity and Perseverance rovers, both controlled by NASA, and the Zhurong rover, part of the Tianwen-1 mission operated by the China National Space Administration (CNSA).
Engineering interplanetary voyages are difficult, and the exploration of Mars has had a high failure rate, particularly in the early efforts. Around 60% of spacecrafts sent for Mars have failed before completing their missions, while several failed before beginning their observations. Some missions, like the twin Mars Exploration Rovers, have had unexpected success.
Elon Musk and SpaceX launched the SpaceX Mars initiative in order to enable the ultimate colonization of Mars.
The achievement of spacecraft encouraged humankind to begin exploring the solar system and the rest of the space, to study the numerous objects and phenomena that are happening in space, and to utilize the resources of the space environment for human benefit.
End Of World War II , governments took the lead in funding fundamental scientific research. The requirement for complicated technology and huge staff resulted in expenditures that could only be afforded by governments. Space research has grown from a modest beginning with government support to include multibillion-dollar missions.