Planets revolve around the sun while rotating around their own axes. A planet’s rotational time is the amount of time it takes to spin once around its own axis. It is the length of a single day on that planet.

As an example: The earth’s rotating time is 24 hours. So that is a day on the planet.

The time it takes a planet to cycle once around the sun is referred to as its time of revolution. That is the year of that specific planet.

e.g.:- The earth’s rotation lasts 365.25 days. That is the Earth’s year.

The majority of the planets have sub-planets. They also revolve around the globe while rotating around their axis.

There are significant occurrences related to the solar system as a result of the planet and sub-planet revolving behavior. Planet Eclipse is one of them.

Eclipses are spectacular astronomical phenomena that may be seen in the sky. Eclipses are classified into two categories.

  1. Solar eclipses
  2. Lunar eclipses

Solar eclipses

Every 27.3 days, the moon rotates around the Earth. On various points throughout this voyage, the moon’s shadow falls on the earth. The sun is completely or partially invisible to individuals who are in the shadow region for an extended period of time. This is known as a solar eclipse. In the sky, we can see the sun and the moon, both of which are the same size. The sun is a massive thing. The moon is quite tiny in comparison to the sun. The sun, on the other hand, is quite far away from the earth and the moon. That is why they appear to be around the same size.

As a result, during a solar eclipse, the moon might completely obscure the sun.

In the earth’s shadow cast by the moon, two zones may be defined. These are known as the umbra and penumbra.

The moon’s umbra spans an area of around 160 km2 on Earth. The rotation of the earth causes this region to move. It signifies that the umbra moves along the earth’s surface. A total solar eclipse can last up to 7.5 minutes at any one location on Earth. On new moon days, there is a solar eclipse.

How might a solar eclipse harm your eyes?

Without adequate eye protection, exposing your eyes to the light during a solar eclipse can result in “eclipse blindness” or retinal burns, commonly known as solar retinopathy. This injury might be transient or permanent, and it is painless. It may take many hours to several days after watching the solar eclipse to discover the extent of the harm.

Solar eclipses should never be seen with your own eyes. For this purpose, eye covers/goggles can be utilized. Welders also use eye protection. Even with such assistance, it is not advised to stare at the sun for an extended period of time. Failure to follow these directions will result in permanent blindness of your eyes.

It is safer to observe the solar eclipse picture projected onto a screen using a mirror or a telescope.

Lunar eclipses

The number of lunar eclipses that we can see exceeds the number of solar eclipses. On a full moon day, there is a lunar eclipse. When the earth passes directly between the sun and the moon it results in Lunar eclipses.

The earth’s shadow has two sections, umbra, and penumbra. According to the sort of shadow cast on the moon, there are three types of lunar eclipses.

  1. Total lunar eclipse
  2. Partial lunar eclipse
  3. Penumbral lunar eclipse

A total lunar eclipse occurs when the moon completely enters the earth’s umbra. Total lunar eclipses are known to happen only on full moon days.

At the same moment, the Moon is at a lunar node, so the Sun, Moon, and Earth are in an almost straight line.

This is due to the Moon’s orbital plane being inclined at a 5° angle to Earth’s orbital plane around the Sun, commonly known as the ecliptic. The spots where the two orbital planes intersect are referred to as lunar nodes. When a Full Moon occurs near a lunar node, it causes a lunar eclipse.

Total lunar eclipse

This occurrence is seen with the naked eye. During a complete lunar eclipse, the moon appears reddish-brown. It goes on for more than an hour. A total lunar eclipse is frequently referred to as a Blood Moon because the Earth’s atmosphere bends sunlight, illuminating the Moon’s surface indirectly. During an eclipse, Earth restricts sunlight from reaching the Moon’s surface. This refraction produces a reddish-orange light that may be seen with the naked eye.

A total lunar eclipse has seven stages.

  1. Penumbral eclipse begins
  2. Partial eclipse begins
  3. Total eclipse begins
  4. Maximum eclipse
  5. Total eclipse ends
  6. Partial eclipse ends
  7. Penumbral eclipse ends

The penumbral eclipse; occurs when the penumbral section of the Earth’s shadow moves over the Moon. This stage is difficult to perceive with the naked eye.

The partial eclipse; begins when the Earth’s umbra begins to cover the Moon, making the eclipse more apparent.

A total eclipse begins when the Earth’s umbra is fully covering the Moon, turning it red, and then brown.

The maximum eclipse occurs in the midst of the total eclipse.

Total eclipse ends: At this point, the Earth’s umbra begins to move away from the Moon’s surface.

The partial eclipse ends when the Earth’s umbra entirely departs the Moon’s surface

The penumbral eclipse has ended, and the Earth’s shadow has entirely moved away from the Moon.

Partial lunar eclipse

A partial lunar eclipse occurs when part of the moon is in the umbra of the earth and the other portion is in the penumbra. The section of the moon visible in the umbra appears reddish-brown in this image.

Penumbral lunar eclipse

A penumbral lunar eclipse happens when the moon travels into the earth’s penumbra. This is difficult to see since the moon’s brightness does not dim significantly.

The coloration of a lunar eclipse can also be yellow, orange, or brown. This is due to the fact that various types of dust particles and clouds in the Earth’s atmosphere enable different wavelengths to reach the Moon’s surface.

When will the next eclipse occur?

November 18–19, 2021 some parts of Europe, across Asia, Australia, North/West Africa, North America, South America, Pacific, Atlantic, Indian Ocean, and the Arctic will see a partial lunar eclipse.

Total Solar Eclipse on December 4, 2021, will be visible across Australia, Africa, South America, the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian Ocean, and Antarctica.

30th of April, 2022 A partial solar eclipse will be visible across South/West South America, the Pacific, the Atlantic, and Antarctica.

Share this post
About Author

Anuradhika Lakmali

Anuradhika Lakmali is a co-founder of Science A Plus learning network. She is working as a government teacher and has interest in chemistry, biology, phisics and self development.